Synergistic larvicidal effect and morphological alterations induced by ethanolic extracts of Annona muricata and Piper nigrum against the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti
Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012
© 2012 Society of Chemical Industry
Pest Management Science
Volume 69, Issue 5, pages 589–601, May 2013
How to Cite
Grzybowski, A., Tiboni, M., Silva, M. A., Chitolina, R. F., Passos, M. and Fontana, J. D. (2013), Synergistic larvicidal effect and morphological alterations induced by ethanolic extracts of Annona muricata and Piper nigrum against the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti. Pest. Manag. Sci., 69: 589–601. doi: 10.1002/ps.3409
- Issue published online: 11 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 19 SEP 2012 03:38AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 27 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Received: 12 APR 2012
Phytopesticide combinations of different botanical sources are seldom reported. Annona muricata seed and Piper nigrum fruit ethanolic extracts enriched in acetogenins and piperamides, respectively, were synergistically used as larvicides against the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti.
Individual bioassays of A. muricata and P. nigrum indicated respective LC50 values of 93.48 and 1.84 µg mL-1 against third-instar larvae. Five combinations of different proportions of plant extracts pointed to synergism between the extracts. The best A. muricata:P. nigrum extract combination was 90:10, which showed 5.12 times the amount of synergism, as confirmed by statistical equations and total concentration log versus combination proportions. Concerning the morphology, A. muricata caused larvae body elongation, mainly in the abdomen, along with the appearance of a cervix. Conversely, P. nigrum induced abdomen and whole body shortening. The morphological effects of A. muricata were prevalent in all of the combinations tested, irrespective of its proportion in the combination.
It is suggested that the different mechanisms of action of the larvicidal actives A. muricata acetogenins and P. nigrum piperamides explain the observed synergism. The combination of inexpensive botanicals and a low-cost organosolvent such as ethanol leads to a simple and efficient phytolarvicidal formulation.