• Dermatophagoides farinae;
  • botanical acaricide;
  • natural fumigant;
  • Pinus densiflora;
  • red pine needle hydrodistillate



The toxicity of red pine needle hydrodistillate (RPN-HD), 19 RPN-HD constituents and another 12 structurally related compounds and the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing RPN-HD (0.5. 1, 2 and 3% sprays) to adult Dermatophagoides farinae were evaluated.


RPN-HD (24 h LC50, 68.33 µg cm−2) was toxic to mites. Menthol was the most toxic compound (12.69 µg cm−2), and the toxicity of this compound and benzyl benzoate did not differ significantly. High toxicity was also produced by α-terpineol, bornyl acetate, geranyl acetate, thymol, linalyl acetate, terpinyl acetate, citral, linalool and camphor (18.79–36.51 µg cm−2). These compounds were more toxic than either deet or dibutyl phthalate. In vapour-phase mortality tests, these compounds were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that their mode of delivery was largely a result of vapour action. RPN-HD 3% experimental spray provided 95% mortality against adult D. farinae, whereas permethrin (cis:trans, 25:75) 2.5 g L−1 spray treatment resulted in 0% mortality.


In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in indoor environments, RPN-HD and the compounds described merit further study as potential biocides for the control of Dermatophagoides populations as fumigants with contact action. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry