Management of an ACCase-inhibitor-resistant Lolium rigidum population based on the use of ALS inhibitors: weed population evolution observed over a 7 year field-scale investigation
Correspondence to: Maurizio Sattin, Istituto di Biologia Agro-ambientale e Forestale (IBAF) – CNR, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy. E-mail: email@example.com
A 7 year experiment was set up in 2002 to evaluate the long-term effects of weed management strategies based on graminicidal sulfonylureas (SUs) on the evolution of a Lolium rigidum population resistant to ACCase inhibitors in a continuous wheat cropping system. The strategies included the continued use of ALS inhibitors, the continued application of ACCase inhibitors and a simple resistance management strategy based on a biennial rotation of herbicide mode of action (MoA).
The efficacy of the tested SUs in the field decreased significantly, starting from the fourth treatment in all control strategies. Regardless of control strategy, the few survivors of the ALS treatment in the third season produced a significant number of ACCase- and ALS-resistant (multiple-resistant) progeny. Continuous ALS and biennial rotation of herbicides reduced weed densities, but L. rigidum conserved its ACCase resistance trait. Enhanced metabolism was detected in ALS-resistant plants, whereas target site was primarily involved in the ACCase-resistant individuals.
At the end of the experiment, multiple-resistant individuals were found in all samples coming from the control strategies investigated. The biennial rotation between ALS and other MoA appeared to delay the development of resistance to SUs over continuous treatments, but additional measures will likely need to be taken in order to make this sustainable in the long term, whereas the field efficacy of SUs remained relatively high until the end of the experiment. Integrated weed management with more diversity should be introduced in oversimplified cropping systems in order to sustainably manage resistant L. rigidum populations. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry