• herbicide resistance management;
  • resistance mechanism;
  • resistance factor;
  • reduced glyphosate translocation;
  • temperature effect



Glyphosate resistance in populations of the C4 perennial Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) and C3 annual Lolium rigidum (rigid ryegrass) has evolved and been documented in many cropping areas around the globe. In S. halepense and in the majority of reported cases in L. rigidum the glyphosate resistance trait has been associated with a mechanism that reduces glyphosate translocation within plants. Here, the significant decrease in the glyphosate resistance level when resistant plants of S. halepense and L. rigidum are grown at suboptimal cool temperature conditions is reported. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry


Lowering temperature from 30 to 19 °C in S. halepense and from 19 to 8 °C in L. rigidum significantly reduced both plant survival and above-ground biomass produced by glyphosate-resistant plants. Thus, glyphosate resistance parameters significantly decreased when glyphosate-treated resistant plants of both species were grown under non-optimal temperature conditions. The results suggest that the resistance mechanism against glyphosate damage is less efficient at optimal growing temperatures.


It is possible to increase the control of glyphosate-resistant S. halepense and L. rigidum populations by treatment with glyphosate during growing conditions at suboptimal low temperatures. Conversely, glyphosate failure will continue to occur on glyphosate-resistant populations treated during periods of higher temperatures.© 2012 Society of Chemical Industry