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Keywords:

  • Piper klotzschianum;
  • Piperaceae;
  • Aedes aegypti;
  • larvicidal activity;
  • cytotoxic activities

Abstract

Background

Volatile oils from fresh roots, stems, leaves and seeds of Piper klotzschianum (Piperaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. In total, 25 components, representing more than 95% of the examined oils, were identified. The essential oils were evaluated against Artemia salina Leach nauplii and fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae.

Results

The major chemical constituents that were identified from various parts of this plant were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene and 2,4,5-trimethoxy-1-propenylbenzene in the root, 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene in the stems and leaves and 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene, limonene and α-phellandrene in the seeds. The biological activities of these essential oils generally exhibited high toxicity against A. salina, with LC50 values that ranged from 7.06 to 15.43 µg mL−1, and significant larvicidal activity against fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae was observed in the essential oils from the seeds (LC50 of 13.27 µg mL−1) and roots (LC50 of 10.0 µg mL−1) of the plant.

Conclusion

The present study indicates that both essential oil of P. klotzsdhianum and the isolate 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene are potential resources for A. aegypti larva control. This is the first report of the biological activities of the oil and isolated compound. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry