• E. crusgalli var. zelayensis;
  • herbicide resistance;
  • ethylene;
  • ACC synthase;
  • ACC oxidase



The highly selective auxin-type herbicide quinclorac is widely used to control important dicotyledon and monocotyledon weeds in rice fields. Echinochloa crusgalli var. zelayensis is one of the most troublesome weeds in China, and is very difficult to control in east China due to misuse of herbicides.


The JZD-R, JTJ-R, JCW-R and SSX-R biotypes of E. crusgalli var. zelayensis had resistance to quinclorac with resistance levels ranked as JZD-R < JTJ-R < JCW-R < SSX-R. Growth reduction in different biotypes was positively correlated with ethylene production. Stimulated levels of ethylene and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and activities of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase in resistant biotypes were less than the susceptible biotype, and were negatively correlated with quinclorac resistance levels, suggesting that inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis was positively correlated with resistance levels.


Considering the resistance-dependent inhibition in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, the mechanisms of resistance to quinclorac in E. crusgalli var. zelayensis involved alteration(s) in the ethylene response pathway, consisting of at least alteration in induction of the enzymes activity of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry