• Neoseiulus californicus;
  • spiromesifen;
  • resistance;
  • synergist;
  • inheritance;
  • detoxification enzymes



Neoseiulus californicus of the family Phytoseiidae is an effective predatory mite species that is used to control pest mites.


The LC50 and LC60 values of spiromesifen were determined on N. californicus using a leaf-disc method and spraying tower. A laboratory selection population designated SPR13 was found to have a 52.08-fold resistance to spiromesifen following 13 selection cycles. This population developed low resistance to hexythiazox and moderate cross-resistance to propargite, clofentezine, spirodiclofen, etoxazole and milbemectin. PBO, IBP and DEM synergised resistance 3.75-, 2.54- and 1.93-fold respectively. Crossing experiments revealed that spiromesifen resistance in the SPR13 population was intermediately dominant and monogenic. In addition, detoxifying enzyme activities were increased 2.74-fold for esterase, 3.09-fold for glutathione S-transferase and 2.17-fold for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in the SPR13 population.


Selection for spiromesifen under laboratory conditions resulted in the development of spiromesifen resistance in the predatory mite N. californicus. Predatory mites that are resistant to pesticides are considered valuable for use in resistance management programmes within integrated pest control strategies. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry