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Keywords:

  • Musca domestica;
  • spinosad;
  • sex-linked expression;
  • resistance mechanism;
  • cytochrome P450 differential transcription

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Resistance has been associated with cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). The authors compare the expression of six genes possibly associated with insecticide resistance in three unselected strains: a multiresistant strain (791a), a neonicotinoid-resistant strain (766b) and a new field strain (845b).

RESULTS

CYP4G2 was highly expressed throughout the range of strains and proved to be the one of the most interesting expression profiles of all P450s analysed. CYP6G4 was expressed up to 11-fold higher in 766b than in WHO-SRS. Significant differences between expression of P450 genes between F1 flies from 845b and established laboratory strains were shown. In general, P450 gene expression in 845b was 2–14-fold higher than in the reference strain (P < 0.0101) and 2–23-fold higher than in the multiresistant strain (P < 0.0110).

CONCLUSION

The newly collected field strain 845b had significantly higher constitutive gene expression than both WHO-SRS and 791a. High constitutive expression of CYP4G2 in houseflies indicates a possible role of this gene in metabolic resistance. There is a strong indication that CYP6G4 is a major insecticide resistance gene involved in neonicotinoid resistance. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry