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Keywords:

  • mutation detection;
  • genotyping;
  • insecticide resistance;
  • Colorado potato beetle;
  • Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Abstract

Three DNA-based genotyping techniques, bi-directional PCR amplification of specific allele (bi-PASA), single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and minisequencing, have been developed and compared for the detection of the S291G (insensitive acetylcholinesterase) and L1014F (insensitive sodium channel) mutations associated with azinphos-methyl and permethrin resistance, respectively, in the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Extraction of genomic DNA from individual neonates that were hatched from previously collected egg masses is the most efficient and reliable means to obtain suitable templates in terms of convenience, economy, speed and DNA quality. Bi-PASA, employing two allele-specific primers, appears to be the most efficient and rapid genotyping method for the simultaneous detection of both resistant/susceptible homozygous (SS, RR) and heterozygous (SR) alleles. Its resolution, however, is strongly dependent on the quality of template genomic DNA. SSCP also allows unambiguous genotyping, including the detection of heterozygous alleles, and is less dependent on template DNA quality, but requires a longer processing time. Minisequencing is amenable to a 96-well microtiter plate format for the processing of a large number of samples and allows direct detection of resistant/susceptible homozygous alleles but is not as efficient as the PASA and SSCP in detecting heterozygous alleles. In considering the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, DNA-based genotyping is best employed in combinations, with the bi-PASA as the primary method and the SSCP and minisequencing as the secondary validating methods. These methods are rugged, rapid, cost-effective and capable of resolving SS, RR and SR individuals. The availability of such DNA-based genotyping techniques, using neonate genomic DNA as templates, will enable the precise monitoring of the resistant and susceptible allele frequencies, including those of heterozygote individuals, in field populations of L decemlineata.

© 2001 Society of Chemical Industry