Occurrence of fungicide resistance in populations of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) on table grape and strawberry in southern Italy
Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) is a pathogen with a high risk of development of resistance to fungicides. Fungicide resistance was monitored during 2008–2011 in B. fuckeliana populations from both table-grape vineyards and greenhouse-grown strawberries in southern Italy.
Isolates showing different levels of resistance to anilinopyrimidines (APs) were detected at high frequency (up to 98%) in fields treated intensively with APs (4–7 sprays season−1). A slight decrease in sensitivity to fludioxonil, always combined with AP resistance, was generally found at lower frequencies. The repeated use of fenhexamid on grapevine (3–8 sprays season−1) led to a strong selection of highly resistant isolates (up to 100%). Boscalid-resistant mutants were detected at very variable frequencies (0–73%). Occurrence of resistance to quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs) was also ascertained. Multiple fungicide resistance to 2–6 different modes of action were frequently recovered. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the target genes Erg27, SdhB and cytb were associated with resistance to fenehexamid, boscalid and QoIs respectively.
Resistance to the fungicides commonly used against grey mould on table grape and strawberry is quite common in southern Italy. This is an outcome of the incorrect use of fungicides, often because of the maximum number of detectable residues of plant protection products imposed by big international retailers, and underlines the crucial role of antiresistance strategies in integrated pest management. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry