Genetic structure of Bemisia tabaci Med populations from home-range countries, inferred by nuclear and cytoplasmic markers: impact on the distribution of the insecticide resistance genes

Authors

  • Nathalie Gauthier,

    Corresponding author
    1. IRD UMR (INRA/IRD/Cirad/Montpellier SupAgro) Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France
    • Correspondence to: Nathalie Gauthier, IRD UMR (INRA/IRD/Cirad/Montpellier SupAgro) Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Campus international de Baillarguet, CS 30016, F-34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez, France. E-mail: Nathalie.Gauthier@supagro.inra.fr and Anastasia Tsagkarakou, Hellenic Agricultural Organisation “Demeter”, Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Plant Protection Institute, 71003 Heraklion, Greece. E-mail: tsagkarakou@nagref.gr

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  • Cécile Clouet,

    1. INRA UMR (INRA/IRD/Cirad/Montpellier SupAgro) Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France
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  • Andreas Perrakis,

    1. Hellenic Agricultural Organisation-Demeter, Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Plant Protection Institute, Heraklion, Greece
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  • Despoina Kapantaidaki,

    1. Hellenic Agricultural Organisation-Demeter, Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Plant Protection Institute, Heraklion, Greece
    2. Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, University of Patra, Agrinio, Greece
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  • Michel Peterschmitt,

    1. CIRAD, UMR BGPI, Montpellier, France
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  • Anastasia Tsagkarakou

    Corresponding author
    1. Hellenic Agricultural Organisation-Demeter, Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Plant Protection Institute, Heraklion, Greece
    • Correspondence to: Nathalie Gauthier, IRD UMR (INRA/IRD/Cirad/Montpellier SupAgro) Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Campus international de Baillarguet, CS 30016, F-34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez, France. E-mail: Nathalie.Gauthier@supagro.inra.fr and Anastasia Tsagkarakou, Hellenic Agricultural Organisation “Demeter”, Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Plant Protection Institute, 71003 Heraklion, Greece. E-mail: tsagkarakou@nagref.gr

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Insecticide resistance management in Bemisia tabaci is one of the main issues facing agricultural production today. An extensive survey was undertaken in five Mediterranean countries to examine the resistance status of Med B. tabaci species in its range of geographic origin and the relationship between population genetic structure and the distribution of resistance genes. The investigation combined molecular diagnostic tests, sequence and microsatellite polymorphism studies and monitoring of endosymbionts.

RESULTS

High frequencies of pyrethroid (L925I and T929V, VGSC gene) and organophosphate (F331W, ace1 gene) resistance mutations were found in France, Spain and Greece, but not in Morocco or Tunisia. Sequence analyses of the COI gene delineated two closely related mitochondrial groups (Q1 and Q2), which were found either sympatrically (Spain) or separately (France). Only Q1 was observed in Greece, Morocco and Tunisia. Bayesian analyses based on microsatellite loci revealed three geographically delineated genetic groups (France, Spain, Morocco/Greece/Tunisia) and high levels of genetic differentiation even between neighbouring samples. Evidence was also found for hybridisation and asymmetrical gene flow between Q1 and Q2.

CONCLUSIONS

Med B. tabaci is more diverse and structured than reported so far. On a large geographic scale, resistance is affected by population genetic structure, whereas on a local scale, agricultural practices appear to play a major role. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry

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