• Musca domestica;
  • Fannia canicularis;
  • imidacloprid;
  • methomyl;
  • dinotefuran;
  • spinosad;
  • cyantraniliprole



Toxic fly baits are commonly used for fly control in California animal operations. However, resistance development has been a problem. Comprehensive laboratory and field studies were conducted to test commercial baits (imidacloprid, methomyl, dinotefuran, spinosad) and one novel cyantraniliprole bait. A susceptible Musca domestica strain was compared with wild-type M. domestica and Fannia canicularis strains in the laboratory using choice/no-choice tests. Field visitation to baits and both short- and longer-term mortality were documented.


Susceptible Musca suffered high mortality with all baits after 3 days of choice and no-choice tests. Wild-type Musca mortality was more variable and higher in no-choice relative to choice tests. Fannia were most susceptible to spinosad > dinotefuran = cyantraniliprole > methomyl = imidacloprid. Field Musca were most attracted to spinosad > cyantraniliprole > dinotefuran > sugar > methomyl > imidacloprid. Delayed mortality from bait-fed field flies (captured and held with untreated food and water for 3 days) was ranked spinosad = cyantraniliprole > dinotefuran = methomyl > imidacloprid > sugar.


Behavioral resistance of M. domestica to imidacloprid and methomyl persists. Spinosad and cyantraniliprole baits (delayed mortality) performed best. Speed of action may be a factor in use and misuse of baits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry