• Nilaparvata lugens;
  • resistance mechanism;
  • cross-resistance;
  • synergism;
  • P450-monooxygenases;
  • acetylcholine receptors


A field population of brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was collected and selected for imidacloprid resistance in the laboratory. The resistance increased by 11.35 times in 25 generations and the resistance ratio reached 72.83 compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. The selected resistant strain showed obvious cross-resistance to all the acetylcholine receptor targeting insecticides tested (monosultap 1.44-fold, acetamiprid 1.61-fold, imidacloprid homologues JS599 2.46-fold and JS598 3.17-fold), but not to others. Further study demonstrated that TPP and DEM had no synergism on imidacloprid. However, PBO displayed significant synergism in some different strains, and the synergism increased with resistance (S strain 1.20, field population 1.43 and R strain 2.93). PBO synergism to cross-resistant insecticides was also found in the resistant strain (monosultap 1.25, acetamiprid 1.39, JS598 1.94 and JS599 2.02). We concluded that esterase and glutathione S-transferase play little role in imidacloprid detoxification. The increase of the P450-monooxygenases detoxification is an important mechanism for imidacloprid resistance and target resistance may also exist in this species. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry