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Keywords:

  • 42.70.Hj;
  • 42.82.Et;
  • 78.20.Ci;
  • 85.40.Ry

Abstract

An optical planar waveguide has been fabricated in Nd:YLiF4 crystal by means of proton implantation at an energy of 500 keV. The m -line arrangement was used to obtain the dark-line spectra of the sample. The induced optical barrier with lower refractive indices inside the crystal confined the near-surface region of the sample as waveguide structures. The waveguide remained fairly stable under thermal annealing treatment at 340 °C for 60 min in air. The nuclear damage created by the incident protons inside the crystal was considered to be the main cause of the barrier formation. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)