Dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free Ba1−xLaxTi1−xFexO3 ceramics



Perovskite types Ba1−xLaxTi1−xFexO3 (with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) ceramics have been prepared through a solid-state reaction route. The room-temperature X-ray diffraction study suggests that all the compositions have single phase. A broad dielectric anomaly coupled with the shift of dielectric maxima toward a higher temperature with increasing frequency indicates the relaxor-type behavior in some ceramics. The relaxor ceramics obtained obey the Vogel–Fulcher law. The partial replacement of Ba2+ by La3+ and Ti4+ by Fe3+ shows a remarkable decrease of TC. The PE hysteresis measurement proves the ferroelectric character of these compounds. The piezoelectric constant d31 of about 33.7 pC N−1 was observed for Ba0.95La0.05Ti0.95Fe0.05O3 ceramic.