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Characterization of ZnO crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method

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Abstract

ZnO crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman technique were comprehensively characterized in view of the impurities and intrinsic defects in the material. It is shown that residual Al is the cause of the residual n-type conductivity and intrinsic defects play only a minor role in the samples. Annealing the samples at 1100 °C for 1 h in oxygen atmosphere improves the surface properties of the samples without having negative effects on their optical and electrical properties.

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