• chalcogenide glass;
  • ion-selective microelectrodes;
  • PLD;
  • polymeric sensor membrane;
  • sensor array


In industrial processes there is a variety of heavy metals (e.g., copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead) in use for wires, coatings, paints, alloys, batteries, etc. Since the application of these transition metals for industry is inevitable, it is a vital task to develop proper analytical techniques for their monitoring at low activity levels, especially because most of these elements are acutely toxic for biological organisms. The determination of ions in solution by means of a simple and inexpensive sensor array is, therefore, a promising task. In this work, a sensor array with heavy metal-sensitive chalcogenide glass membranes for the simultaneous detection of the four ions Ag+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ in solution is realized. The results of the physical characterization by means of microscopy, profilometry, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as the electrochemical characterization by means of potentiometric measurements are presented. Additionally, the possibility to expand the sensor array by polymeric sensor membranes is discussed.