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Keywords:

  • defect states;
  • dopant profiles;
  • hydrogen;
  • ion implantation;
  • silicon

Abstract

Radiation-induced defects are a common tool in the manufacturing of modern power semiconductor devices. Hydrogen-related doping is a feasible method to introduce deep doping profiles with a low thermal budget. The hydrogen-related donors (HDs) require radiation damage and hydrogen, which can be induced by different methods, e.g., proton implantation, helium and proton co-implantation, or an implantation followed by a hydrogen-plasma step. The choice of these methods significantly affects the introduction efficiency of the donors and the necessary post-implantation thermal budget. By controlling the hydrogen-to-damage ratio, the manufacturing process of the HD profiles may be moved on a trade-off between the activation efficiency and the necessary thermal budget. A low hydrogen-to-damage ratio leads to an increased activation of the HDs, whereas a high hydrogen-to-damage ratio reduces the necessary diffusion time of the hydrogen during the post-implantation anneal. For the technical usage of hydrogen-related doping, knowledge of an efficient process window is desirable. In this paper, we consider proton implantation, helium and proton co-implantation, and a proton implantation followed by a hydrogen-plasma step as different introduction methods of HD profiles with regard to the activation efficiency of the HDs and the necessary thermal budget.