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Process simulation of dopant diffusion and activation in germanium

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Abstract

Germanium with its high carrier mobility is currently being investigated as an alternative material to silicon for advanced MOS devices. We have reviewed the literature on n-type and p-type doping of germanium and established a baseline calibration for technology process simulation. Fundamental parameters for germanium point defects have been selected and extended defect evolution has been calibrated. Models and parameters for accurate simulation of ion implantation, diffusion, and activation of the most common dopants (phosphorus and arsenic for n-type, boron for p-type) have been defined. We discuss the current accuracy and limitations of the process calibration and specify missing experimental data needed for enhancing and broaden the simulation capabilities for germanium processing.

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