In this paper, we first review the trends for advanced CMOS devices in terms of architectures and scalability. The paper highlights the key process challenges for planar MOSFET and FinFET device technologies. We emphasize the need for advanced implant solutions to enable device scaling and performance as well as variability improvement. Especially, we discuss the latest damage engineering solutions as well as materials modification techniques (e.g., contact and strain engineering) to reduce leakage, improve drive current and process margin with reduced variability. Finally, we briefly discuss the implications and new challenges coming from novel channel material devices (e.g., silicon-germanium, germanium, and III–V).