• CZTSe;
  • electrodeposition;
  • kesterite;
  • selenization;
  • thin film solar cells

Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells were synthesized by electrodeposition of metal stack precursors followed by selenization, a high potential process for industry, leading to conversion efficiencies above 5%. An additional selenium-capping layer deposited on the precursor before annealing showed improved uniformity and morphology of CZTSe layers compared to other selenization routes. Two different atmospheric annealing systems were used: a closed graphite box in a tubular furnace and a three-chamber dynamic rapid thermal processing furnace. The RTP system gave larger grains and more compact layers, whereas CZTSe selenized in tube furnace had smaller grains and a higher series resistance. Both annealing systems gave best cells power conversion efficiencies over 5%. We will discuss the device photoelectric properties and their relation to material structures and processing.