The magnetic properties of Mn-doped ZnO (ZnO:Mn) nanorods grown by hydrothermal process at a temperature of 200 °C and a growth time of 3 h have been studied. The samples were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and SQUID magnetometry. Mn (3 wt%) and (5 wt%)-doped ZnO samples exhibit paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior, respectively, at room temperature. The spin-glass behavior is observed from the samples with respect to the decrease of temperature. At 10 K, both samples exhibit a hysteresis loop with relatively low coercivity. The room-temperature ferromagnetism in 5 wt% Mn-doped ZnO nanorods is attributed to the increase in the specific area of grain boundaries, interaction between dopant Mn2+ ions substituted at Zn2+ site and the interaction between Mn2+ ions and Zn2+ ions from the ZnO host lattice.
M–H curve of hydrothermally grown ZnO:Mn (3 wt%) and ZnO:Mn (5 wt%) nanorods at 10 K.