Fabrication of ion-sliced lithium niobate slabs using helium ion implantation and Cu–Sn bonding



The fabrication of LiNbO3 waveguide slabs with sub-micron thickness is presented using He ion-induced splitting and the Cu–Sn bonding technique. The exfoliation time of implanted LiNbO3 was investigated as a function of annealing temperatures to reveal the activation energies during the splitting process. Defect-free waveguide films with large areas of several cm2 are consistently produced by using the inter-diffusion bonding of Cu–Sn interface. The fabricated film was investigated by using the Rutherford backscattering/channeling method and dark mode spectroscopy.