physica status solidi (a)

Cover image for Vol. 209 Issue 12

December 2012

Volume 209, Issue 12

Pages 2333–2660

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Front Cover: Recent progress in the understanding of exciton dynamics within phosphorescent OLEDs (Phys. Status Solidi A 12/2012)

      Sebastian Reineke and Marc A. Baldo

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201290031

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic electroluminescence is the key technology for mobile displays, is currently introduced to large-area flat screen displays and is intensively explored as one of the next generation solid-state light sources. Excited states of organic molecules (excitons) are the heart of any organic electroluminescent device. They mediate the conversion of injected charges - electrons and holes - into photons. Phosphorescent emission originating from triplet excitons is especially important, as it is to date the only general route to enable unity charge-to-photon conversion efficiencies. In their Feature Article on pp. 2341–2353, Reineke and Baldo discuss the key aspects of excitons, following the excited state lifecycle. First, the fundamentals of singlet and triplet exciton formation in organic semiconductors are reviewed, followed by a discussion of concepts that aim to alter the singlet-to-triplet formation rates to enable higher electroluminescence yields in the fluorescence manifold. Subsequently, their review focuses on the exciton distribution within the organic semiconductor material during its lifetime. The processes involved ultimately determine organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance and are especially key in the development of concepts for white emission, where precise balance of the exciton between different emitter species controls the emitted color. The paper is closed with a discussion of non-linear effects at high excitation levels that, to date, limit the high brightness efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs. The cover pictures different organic compounds used as emitter molecules in phosphorescent OLEDs (illuminated with ultraviolet light). The inset shows a device under operation.

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Back Cover: Growth and characterization of site-selective quantum dots (Phys. Status Solidi A 12/2012)

      Mathieu Helfrich, Philipp Schroth, Daniil Grigoriev, Sergey Lazarev, Roberto Felici, Taras Slobodskyy, Tilo Baumbach and Daniel M. Schaadt

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201290032

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Helfrich et al. (pp. 2387–2401) have prepared and investigated site-selective InAs quantum dots (QDs) on pre-patterned GaAs substrates in order to gain further understanding of the mechanisms controlling the structure and the distribution of site-selective QDs. Regular arrays with multiple QDs (upper left image on the cover) or individual QDs at pre-defined locations (upper right) are of interest, depending on the envisaged applications. Besides geometrical parameters of the pattern and growth parameters that determine the final QD structure to some extent, a post growth treatment based on in situ annealing has allowed to manipulate the size of the QDs as well as the number of QDs per site in an array (lower left). Further insight was gained by analyzing a single array of site-selective QDs grown inside nanoholes with X-ray diffraction techniques. The structure and the periodicity of the holes is revealed in the measurement and can be modeled using finite element method (lower right). A proper understanding of the contributions from hole shape and pattern is essential in order to further investigate the ordering of QDs nucleating inside regularly spaced holes.

  3. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201290033

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  5. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. Feature Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Recent progress in the understanding of exciton dynamics within phosphorescent OLEDs (pages 2341–2353)

      Sebastian Reineke and Marc A. Baldo

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228292

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) allows that every exciton formed in the organic emission layer(s) can emit a photon. With that, phosphorescence provides a fourfold improvement over conventional fluorescent OLEDs to unity internal quantum efficiency. In turn, the excited state lifetimes of the triplet emitters used are orders of magnitude longer than the ones of singlet excitons introducing a noticeable efficiency roll-off. In this Feature Article, we review recent progress in the understanding of phosphorescence in OLEDs. In addition, Reineke and Baldo discuss emerging conceptual alternatives to phosphorescence like extrafluorescence and thermally delayed fluorescence.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Effects of Gaussian disorder on charge carrier transport and recombination in organic semiconductors (pages 2354–2377)

      R. Coehoorn and P. A. Bobbert

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228387

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three-dimensional simulation of the charge carrier transport in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has led to the development of second generation OLED models, within which the energetic randomness of the molecular sites is taken into account. In contrast to more conventionally used first generation models, where the current density is a laterally uniform function of the position, the current density is found to be filamentary. In this Feature Article, it is discussed how within the framework of second generation modelling effective expressions for the charge carrier mobility and exciton generation may be obtained, which may be used in more efficient one-dimensional OLED simulations. Furthermore, the results of experimental validation studies for polymer and small-molecule devices are discussed.

  7. Preface

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Site-selective growth of single quantum dots (page 2378)

      André Strittmatter

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201221943

  8. Feature Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      In(Ga)As/GaAs site-controlled quantum dots with tailored morphology and high optical quality (pages 2379–2386)

      Christian Schneider, Alexander Huggenberger, Manuel Gschrey, Peter Gold, Sven Rodt, Alfred Forchel, Stephan Reitzenstein, Sven Höfling and Martin Kamp

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228373

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      One of the most important challenges in seeking for scalable approaches for quantum information architectures based on optically active single quantum dots (QDs) in semiconductors is gaining control over the emitter's position. One concept to achieve well-ordered arrays of In(Ga)As quantum dots fabricated on the most commonly used (001) oriented GaAs substrate is based on principles of directed nucleation on nanoholes, and it is approaching now a high level of maturity. In this Feature Article, the authors discuss and review growth and fabrication strategies allowing for the realization of perfectly ordered In(Ga)As QD arrays, comprising optical properties comparable to their self-assembled counterparts.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Growth and characterization of site-selective quantum dots (pages 2387–2401)

      Mathieu Helfrich, Philipp Schroth, Daniil Grigoriev, Sergey Lazarev, Roberto Felici, Taras Slobodskyy, Tilo Baumbach and Daniel M. Schaadt

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228423

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Feature Article, mechanisms that control the structure and the distribution of site-selective InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on pre-patterned GaAs substrates are reviewed. Depending on the application, regular arrays with multiple QDs (upper left figure) or individual QDs at pre-defined locations (upper right figure) are of interest. Besides geometrical parameters of the pattern and growth parameters that determine the final QD structure to some extent, a post growth treatment based on in situ annealing has allowed to manipulate the size of QDs as well as the number of QDs per site on an array (lower figure).

    3. You have free access to this content
      Pre-patterned silicon substrates for the growth of III–V nanostructures (pages 2402–2410)

      M. Benyoucef, M. Usman, T. Alzoubi and J. P. Reithmaier

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228367

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      For III-V/Si hybrid integration, direct epitaxial growth of III–V compounds on silicon substrates would be the most desirable approach, because only silicon processing is required. However, heteroepitaxial growth typically introduces defects. Growth on pre-patterned substrates could result in reducing or eliminating such defects due to size effect and effective lateral stress relaxation related to the presence of nanohole facet edges. In this Feature Article, Benyoucef and coworkers review the recent progress on site-controlled growth of III–V material on pre-patterned silicon substrates. In addition, they discuss an optimized growth process towards the full control of III–V nucleation in pre-patterned nanoholes.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Site-controlled quantum dot growth on buried oxide stressor layers (pages 2411–2420)

      André Strittmatter, André Holzbecher, Andrei Schliwa, Jan-Hindrik Schulze, David Quandt, Tim David Germann, Alexander Dreismann, Ole Hitzemann, Erik Stock, Irina A. Ostapenko, Sven Rodt, Waldemar Unrau, Udo W. Pohl, Axel Hoffmann, Dieter Bimberg and Vladimir Haisler

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228407

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This Feature Article gives insight into a buried stressor approach by which QD site-control is combined with self-alignment of current injection. An aperture within a laterally oxidized layer serves as buried stressor and simultaneously confines the current injection path of vertical pn-diodes. The figure shows a mesa and the buried stressor structure (inset). Exclusive QD nucleation at the mesa center is seen in the AFM image (upper image).

  9. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. The roles of thermalized and hot carrier diffusion in determining light yield and proportionality of scintillators (pages 2421–2426)

      J. Q. Grim, Q. Li, K. B. Ucer, A. Burger, G. A. Bizarri, W. W. Moses and R. T. Williams

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201200436

    2. Materials preparation, manipulation, and structure

      Electrical and magnetic properties of Co substituted MnZnFe2O4 (pages 2441–2448)

      Ahmad Zubair, Saima A. Siddiqui, F. A. Khan and Mohammad A. Alim

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228486

    3. Nanostructures, thin films, surfaces and interfaces

      Defect engineering of Si nanocrystal interfaces (pages 2449–2454)

      Margit Zacharias, Daniel Hiller, Andreas Hartel and Sebastian Gutsch

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201200734

    4. From porous to dense thin ZnO films through reactive DC sputter deposition onto Si (100) substrates (pages 2463–2469)

      Michał A. Borysiewicz, Elżbieta Dynowska, Valery Kolkovsky, Jan Dyczewski, Maciej Wielgus, Eliana Kamińska and Anna Piotrowska

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228041

    5. Morphological, structural, and photoelectrochemical characterization of n-type Cu2O thin films obtained by electrodeposition (pages 2470–2475)

      Paula Grez, Francisco Herrera, Gonzalo Riveros, Andrés Ramírez, Rodrigo Henríquez, Enrique Dalchiele and Ricardo Schrebler

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228286

    6. Capacitance characterization of Ge15Sb85 phase-change thin films (pages 2476–2480)

      N. Qamhieh, S. T. Mahmoud, A. I. Ayesh and H. Ghamlouche

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228109

    7. A sol–gel approach to self-formation of microtubular structures from metal alkoxide gel films (pages 2481–2486)

      Martin Järvekülg, Raul Välbe, Jakob Jõgi, Aigi Salundi, Triin Kangur, Valter Reedo, Jaan Kalda, Uno Mäeorg, Ants Lõhmus and Alexey E. Romanov

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228371

    8. Influence of group III and group V partial pressures on the size and density of InGaN quantum dots in MOVPE (pages 2487–2491)

      Abdul Kadir, Konrad Bellmann, Tino Simoneit, Markus Pristovsek and Michael Kneissl

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228238

    9. Prediction of the thermal conductivity of SiC nanowires with kinetic theory of gases (pages 2492–2498)

      Patrice Chantrenne and Konstantinos Termentzidis

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228260

    10. Synthesis and characterization of Au–alumina nanocomposites prepared by atom beam co-sputtering (pages 2499–2504)

      Manisha Tiwari, D. C. Agarwal, S. Mohapatra, J. C. Pivin, D. K. Avasthi and S. Annapoorni

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228362

    11. Electrical properties of individual GaP nanowires doped by zinc (pages 2505–2509)

      Jozef Novak, Ján Šoltýs, Peter Eliáš, Stanislav Hasenöhrl, Roman Stoklas, Agata Dujavová and Martin Mikulics

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228255

    12. Synthesis of graphene by surface wave plasma chemical vapor deposition from camphor (pages 2510–2513)

      Golap Kalita, Subash Sharma, Koichi Wakita, Masayoshi Umeno, Yasuhiko Hayashi and Masaki Tanemura

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228554

    13. Structural and optoelectronic properties of selenium-doped silicon formed using picosecond pulsed laser mixing (pages 2521–2526)

      Shaoxu Hu, Peide Han, Shuai Wang, Xue Mao, Xinyi Li and Lipeng Gao

      Version of Record online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228202

    14. High-performance a-SiGe:H thin film prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with high plasma power for solar-cell application (pages 2527–2531)

      Baojun Yan, Lei Zhao, Bending Zhao, Jingwei Chen, Guanghong Wang, Hongwei Diao and Wenjing Wang

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228281

    15. Charge transport phenomena; superconductivity

      Modification of metal–organic interface using F4-TCNQ for enhanced hole injection properties in optoelectronic devices (pages 2539–2545)

      O. Rana, R. Srivastava, G. Chauhan, M. Zulfequar, M. Husain, P. C. Srivastava and M. N. Kamalasanan

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228252

    16. Hot pressing and nanostructuring of Bi90Sb10 alloys to concurrently improve mechanical and thermoelectric properties (pages 2565–2569)

      Nicholas A. Heinz, Sarah Howell, Heng Wang, Teruyuki Ikeda and G. Jeffrey Snyder

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228365

    17. Effects of (HoxIn1−x)1.9Sn0.1O3 matrix on magnetization of dispersed Fe3O4 nanocrystals (pages 2570–2573)

      Minemaru Tanabe, Takuro Manabe, Shigemi Kohiki, Masanori Mitome and Kunio Yubuta

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228344

    18. Optical properties

      Charge compensation and its influences on luminescent properties of red-emitting Ca3(PO4)2:Eu3+ phosphor (pages 2574–2577)

      Zhan Hui Zhang, Li Chen, Jiang Nan Da, De Xing Guo, Ke Qin Cai, Ru An Chi and Zhi Liang Huang

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228267

    19. Luminescence of Tb3+-doped oxide glasses with high Gd2O3 concentration under UV and X-ray excitation (pages 2578–2582)

      Weerapong Chewpraditkul, Qiuchun Sheng, Danping Chen, Alena Beitlerova and Martin Nikl

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228393

    20. Plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence from TiO2:Sm3+:Au nanostructure (pages 2583–2588)

      Guofei An, Chaoshun Yang, Yawei Zhou and Xiaopeng Zhao

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228290

    21. All-optical magnetization switching using phase shaped ultrashort laser pulses (pages 2589–2595)

      Sabine Alebrand, Alexander Hassdenteufel, Daniel Steil, Marianne Bader, Alexander Fischer, Mirko Cinchetti and Martin Aeschlimann

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228500

    22. Optical interband transitions in Zn2TiO4 single crystals (pages 2596–2599)

      Liang Li, Fangfei Li, Tian Cui, Qiang Zhou and Dapeng Xu

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228394

    23. Magnetic properties; magnetic resonances

    24. Dielectric and ferroelectric properties

      Local piezoelectric response of single poly(vinylidene fluoride) electrospun fibers (pages 2605–2609)

      V. Sencadas, C. Ribeiro, I. K. Bdikin, A. L. Kholkin and S. Lanceros-Mendez

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228136

    25. Effects of MnO2 doping on structure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.825NaNbO3–0.175Ba0.6(Bi0.5K0.5)0.4TiO3 lead-free ceramics (pages 2610–2614)

      Ximing Fan, Dunmin Lin, Qiaoji Zheng, Hailing Sun, Yang Wan, Xiaochun Wu and Lang Wu

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228254

    26. Device-related phenomena

      Interaction between Al–Si melt and dielectric layers during formation of local Al-alloyed contacts for rear-passivated Si solar cells (pages 2615–2619)

      Angel Uruena, Jörg Horzel, Joachim John, Emanuele Cornagliotti, Pierre Eyben, Martin Pfeiffer, Wilfried Vandervorst, Jef Poortmans and Robert Mertens

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228353

    27. Luminescence properties of stoichiometric EuM2S4 (M = Ga, Al) conversion phosphors for white LED applications (pages 2620–2625)

      Ruijin Yu, Hyun Kyoung Yang, Byung Kee Moon, Byung Chun Choi and Jung Hyun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228348

    28. 1D and 2D position detection using magnetoimpedance sensor array (pages 2626–2629)

      M. Ipatov, V. Zhukova, J. M. Blanco, A. Zhukov and J. Gonzalez

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228358

    29. Effects of gate shaping and consequent process changes on AlGaN/GaN HEMT reliability (pages 2646–2652)

      Janina Möreke, Milan Ťapajna, Michael J. Uren, Yi Pei, Umesh K. Mishra and Martin Kuball

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228395

    30. Line beam processing for laser lift-off of GaN from sapphire (pages 2653–2658)

      Ralph Delmdahl, Rainer Pätzel, Jan Brune, Rolf Senczuk, Christian Goßler, Rüdiger Moser, Michael Kunzer and Ulrich T. Schwarz

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228430

  10. Information for authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Preface
    9. Feature Articles
    10. Original Papers
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Information for authors (pages 2659–2660)

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201221944

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