Fabrication, electrical and optical properties of silver, indium tin oxide (ITO), and indium zinc oxide (IZO) nanostructure arrays (Phys. Status Solidi A 5/2013)
Akram A. Khosroabadi, Palash Gangopadhyay, Binh Duong, Jayan Thomas, Ajaya K. Sigdel, Joseph J. Berry, Thomas Gennett, N. Peyghambarian and Robert A. Norwood
Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201370020
Nanostructured metal and transparent conducting oxide electrodes with controllable feature sizes are of major interest to various opto-electronic devices as they provide a larger interface for the energy transduction processes and nanoscale electronic confi nement resulting in tunable and often exotic optical and electrical properties. Khosroabadi et al. (pp. 831–838) have developed a versatile and powerful new method that enables the lithographic fabrication of nano-architectured ordered one-dimensional metal and metal-oxide electrodes. Optical band gap, electronic carrier concentrations and resistivity of these highly transparent electrodes can be tuned by simply changing the dimensions of the unit nanostructures. A series of samples of silver, pillar-shaped indium tin oxide and mitre-shaped indium zinc oxide one-dimensional nanoelectrodes were fabricated with controlled shapes and surface area enhancement factors up to ∼11 times. These samples were characterized by a number of complementary methods: optical absorption, transmission and refl ection spectroscopy, electrical resistivity measurements, high resolution SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize both in-depth and lateral structure features, carrier concentrations and band gap values. Detailed fabrication methodology, electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide, indium zinc oxide and silver electrodes are discussed.