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Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires

Authors

  • Christian Czekalla,

    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    2. Present address: AIXTRON AG, Kaiserstr. 98, 52134 Herzogenrath, Germany
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  • Thomas Nobis,

    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    2. Present address: Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, 07745 Jena, Germany
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  • Andreas Rahm,

    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    2. Present address: Solarion AG, Ostende 5, 04288 Leipzig, Germany
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  • Bingqiang Cao,

    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    2. Present address: School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 Shandong, China
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  • Jesús Zúñiga-Pérez,

    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    2. Present address: Centre de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications (CRHEA), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Rue Bernard Grégory, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne, France
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  • Chris Sturm,

    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
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  • Rüdiger Schmidt-Grund,

    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
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  • Michael Lorenz,

    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
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  • Marius Grundmann

    Corresponding author
    1. Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    • Phone: +49-341-9732650, Fax: +49-341-9732668
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Abstract

Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances have been observed in zinc oxide micro- and nanowire cavities. Using model calculations, the experimentally observed mode spectrum was reproduced. The effect has been observed for wire radii between 100 nm and 10 µm corresponding to angular mode numbers from 1 to about 250. The whispering gallery effect was used to determine the refractive index of the wires as a function of the photon energy and temperature. Under high excitation conditions, WGM lasing was observed. Two methods for calculating the complex resonant modes are presented: a simple plane wave model and the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation for the given resonator geometry.

original image

A typical photoluminescence (PL) spectrum showing WGM resonances and (inset) a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of a zinc oxide (ZnO) microwire.

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