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Photon-in photon-out soft X-ray spectroscopy for materials science


  • Dedicated to Dieter Schmeißer on the occasion of his 60th birthday.


A brief overview of the three elements of photon-in photon-out spectroscopy is given, i.e., X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). Key features are emphasized, such as element selectivity and the ability to study electronic states in dilute systems, at buried interfaces, and in a liquid environment. Characteristic applications in the areas of nanomaterials, biomaterials, and photovoltaic materials illustrate these capabilities.