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Keywords:

  • nanooptics;
  • Nanostructures;
  • spectroscopy

Recent experimental progress in localized excitation with nanofields and localized detection for various observables (light intensities, photo electrons, etc.) at nanometer scales, suggest to rethink conventional spectroscopic schemes in terms of localized excitation and detection. In this paper, a systematic overview will be given, how the observables and Hamilton operators in case of localized excitation and detection need to be modified. The implications of localized excitation and detection are also illustrated using linear optics and pump probe spectroscopy.