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Keywords:

  • Bell inequality;
  • cross correlations;
  • entanglement;
  • quantum manipulation;
  • quantum noise

Entanglement, viz. the non-separability of quantum states, is a fundamental prediction of quantum mechanics, which is at odds with the classical perception of reality. Furthermore, it constitutes a resource for quantum computation and quantum communication. Electronic degrees of freedom in nanostructures –in particular the spin –constitute promising candidates to implement quantum information architectures in scalable solid state circuits. In this topical review, we will summarize some efforts to create and detect entanglement in such structures. We concentrate first on entanglement in double quantum dots, since they promise to be viable candidates to produce entanglement by confining electrons to a small interaction region. The quantitative detection of the entanglement through transport measurements can be done via current and noise. Secondly, we concentrate on the creation of spin entanglement at quantum point contacts, which has the advantage that the two electrons are automatically spatially separated. We discuss the possibility of performing a Bell test of non-local correlations. However, as we will point out, a reliable entanglement detection can be performed by current-correlation measurements, although they require some trust in the experimental setup. Finally, we present a hierarchy of mesoscopic Bell tests, which could be useful to evaluate theoretical proposals and experimental setups.