physica status solidi (b)

Cover image for Vol. 249 Issue 10

Special Issue: Phase-change memory: Science and applications

October 2012

Volume 249, Issue 10

Pages 1817–2048

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
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      Front Cover: Amorphous structures of Ge/Sb/Te alloys: Density functional simulations (Phys. Status Solidi B 10/2012)

      J. Akola and R. O. Jones

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201290025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Phase change memory materials are based on the astonishingly rapid and reversible transition between the amorphous and crystalline phases of nanosized “bits” in a very thin polycrystalline layer. These phases must also have contrasting resistivities or optical properties, and few materials satisfy all requirements. Great efforts over more than 20 years have brought focus on a few families of alloys, one of which (“GST”) contains germanium (Ge), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te). One such alloy that has been used in Blu-ray Disc optical storage is Ge8Sb2Te11 and 640-atom simulations of its amorphous phase are described in the Feature Article by Akola and Jones (pp. 1851–1860). The cover figure shows the structure that results (red: Ge, blue: Sb, yellow: Te). Fourfold rings where Te atoms alternate with Ge or Sb atoms are very common, and a three-dimensional “column” with such ordering is shown. The prevalence of fourfold rings of this type in both amorphous and crystalline phases is a crucial feature of GST phase change materials.

  2. Back Cover

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    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
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      Back Cover: Phase-change processors, memristors and memflectors (Phys. Status Solidi B 10/2012)

      C. David Wright, Lei Wang, Mustafa M. Aziz, Jorge A. Vazquez Diosdado and Peter Ashwin

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201290026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Phase-change materials exhibit some remarkable properties which have, over the last four decades, led to the successful development of both optical and electrical binary phasechange memories. However, as pointed out by the ‘father of phase-change materials’ himself, Stanford R. Ovshinsky, such binary memories only ‘scratch the surface’ in terms the extraordinary functionality that phase-change systems offer. This functionality extends to non-binary arithmetic processing, non-volatile logic, neuronal/synaptic mimics and cognitive computing — all available in both the electrical and optical domains, or indeed using a mixture of the two. Here Wright et al. (pp. 1978–1984) introduce and explain the physical origins of some of this remarkable functionality and outline some exciting potential applications for phase-change materials and devices, beyond the confines of simple binary memories. The authors explore the memristive properties of phase-change devices, drawing on an analogy between crystallization behaviour in phase-change cells and the wellknown moving conductive-front memristor model. Exploiting the dual optical—electrical activity of phase-change materials, a new type of device is also described, the memory-refl ector or ‘memfl ector’. Finally, the authors show how a simple phase-change cell can perform arithmetic, including addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, all in high-order bases and with simultaneous storage of the result.

  3. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. Issue Information

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201290027

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
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      Content (Phys. Status Solidi B 10/2012) (pages 1817–1821)

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201240933

  5. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
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      Content (Phys. Status Solidi B 10/2012) (page 1823)

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201240935

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The articles in this Special Issue of physica status solidi (b) represent the latest progress in the field of science of phase-change materials, in particular amorphous chalcogenides. The status of their current commercial as well as forthcoming applications in digital memory, including re-writable optical discs, such as digital versatile discs, and flash memory is described. The contributions are dedicated to Stanford R. Ovshinsky, a pioneer of science and applications of disordered materials and the inventor of phase-change memory. They have been written by many of his admirers and followers (see the Preface by A. V. Kolobov and M. Popescu on pp. 1824–1826).

  7. Preface

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    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
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      Phase-change memory: Science and applications (pages 1824–1826)

      Alexander V. Kolobov and Mihai Popescu

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201240936

  8. Dedication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  9. Past & Present

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
  10. Feature Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
    3. You have free access to this content
  11. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. Electric-field-assisted crystallisation in phase-change materials (pages 1897–1901)

      Krisztian Kohary, Jorge A. Vázquez Diosdado, Peter Ashwin and C. David Wright

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200376

    2. p-Type conductivity of GeTe: The role of lone-pair electrons (pages 1902–1906)

      Alexander V. Kolobov, Paul Fons and Junji Tominaga

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200434

    3. Nanosecond-scale time-resolved electron imaging during laser crystallization of GeTe (pages 1907–1913)

      Melissa K. Santala, Bryan W. Reed, Simone Raoux, Teya Topuria, Thomas LaGrange and Geoffrey H. Campbell

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200418

    4. Truncated Lorch-window method revealing the off-octahedral Ge in nanocrystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 (pages 1914–1918)

      X. Q. Liu, X. B. Li, B. Zhang, S. B. Zhang, E. Ma, Z. Zhang and X. D. Han

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200377

    5. Disorder in order: A study of local and global order in Ge-rich Ge[BOND]Sb[BOND]Te alloys (pages 1919–1924)

      P. Fons, T. Matsunaga, A. V. Kolobov, M. Krbal, J. Tominaga and N. Yamada

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200497

    6. Configuration effects of superlattice-like phase change material structure (pages 1925–1931)

      R. Zhao, L. P. Shi, C. C. Tan, H. K. Lee, H. X. Yang, L. T. Law and T. C. Chong

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200415

    7. A reconsideration of the thermodynamics of phase-change switching (pages 1932–1938)

      Junji Tominaga, Xiaomin Wang, Alexander V. Kolobov and Paul Fons

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200350

    8. On the epitaxy of germanium telluride thin films on silicon substrates (pages 1939–1944)

      Alessandro Giussani, Karthick Perumal, Michael Hanke, Peter Rodenbach, Henning Riechert and Raffaella Calarco

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200367

    9. Characterization of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film alloys using conductive-tip atomic force microscopy (pages 1945–1950)

      Chia Min Chang, Yen Ju Liu, Ming Lun Tseng, Nien-Nan Chu, Ding-Wei Huang, Masud Mansuripur and Din Ping Tsai

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200356

  12. Past & Present

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
  13. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. Nanostructure–property relations for phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) line cells (pages 1972–1977)

      B.J. Kooi, J.L.M. Oosthoek, M.A. Verheijen, M. Kaiser, F.J. Jedema and D.J. Gravesteijn

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200371

  14. Original Article

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. Phase-change processors, memristors and memflectors (pages 1978–1984)

      C. David Wright, Lei Wang, Mustafa M. Aziz, Jorge A. Vazquez Diosdado and Peter Ashwin

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200378

  15. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
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    1. Fast and scalable memory characteristics of Ge-doped SbTe phase change materials (pages 1985–1991)

      Byung-ki Cheong, Suyoun Lee, Jeung-hyun Jeong, Sohee Park, Seungwu Han, Zhe Wu and Dong-Ho Ahn

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200419

    2. Phase transitions in Ga–Sb phase change alloys (pages 1999–2004)

      Simone Raoux, Anja K. König, Huai-Yu Cheng, Daniele Garbin, Roger W. Cheek, Jean L. Jordan-Sweet and Matthias Wuttig

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200370

    3. Short range order and Ag diffusion threshold in Agx(Ge0.25Se0.75)100−x glasses (pages 2028–2033)

      A. A. Piarristeguy, G. J. Cuello, A. Fernández-Martínez, V. Cristiglio, M. Johnson, M. Ribes and A. Pradel

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200384

    4. Integration of chalcogenide glassy films and liquid crystals for photoalignment and optically addressed modulators (pages 2040–2046)

      I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor Kirzhner, Yu. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, Yu. Reznikov, N. Sheremet and K. Slyusarenko

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201200366

  16. Information for authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. Recent and forthcoming publications in pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Preface
    9. Dedication
    10. Past & Present
    11. Feature Articles
    12. Original Papers
    13. Past & Present
    14. Original Papers
    15. Original Article
    16. Original Papers
    17. Information for authors
    1. Information for authors (pages 2047–2048)

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201240937

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