Focused ion beam fabrication and properties of nanoscale Josephson junctions for sensors and other applications



The methods of superconducting device fabrication by lithography and multilevel processing usually require a number of processing steps with lithographic resolution and alignment adequate for the scale of the device be fabricated. As an alternative, the focused ion beam (FIB) microscope is increasingly being used directly to fabricate devices. A major advantage of using a FIB compared to other lithography methods is its flexibility and high resolution. It allows in-situ, milling (∼5 nm at a beam current of 1 pA) to a variety of depths, and imaging (2 nm) of the sample. In this paper we describe our development of junction fabrication techniques using the FIB and their application in creating a range of potential sensor devices and quantum electronics applications. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)