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Keywords:

  • photoluminescence;
  • imaging;
  • dislocation;
  • D1 line;
  • silicon

Abstract

Here we report on two different approaches, which allow rapid photoluminescence imaging of dislocation-related D1, and band-to-band radiation on multicrystalline solar cell wafers at room temperature. We compared a new light emitting diode based method with the recently introduced pulsed laser based method. With both techniques we obtained spatially resolved images from 15.6 × 15.6 cm2 wafers originating from different stages of the standard solar cell production process, showing that these techniques are highly interesting for inline quality control. Both methods provide homogeneous illumination over the whole sample area. With a resolution around 300 μm, and a total recording time of ∼45 s, full D1 images could be captured by the new diode technique. The most promising fact was that surface artifacts did not lead to any noticeable disturbance in the D1 image. For acid textured wafers, the pulsed laser based method was clearly in advantage over the continuous diode technique. Possible explanations are discussed in the text. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)