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Light-induced degradation in copper-contaminated gallium-doped silicon



To date, gallium-doped Czochralski (Cz) silicon has constituted a solar cell bulk material free of light-induced degradation. However, we measure light-induced degradation in gallium-doped Cz silicon in the presence of copper impurities. The measured degradation depends on the copper concentration and the material resistivity. Gallium-doped Cz silicon is found to be less sensitive to copper impurities than boron-doped Cz silicon, emphasizing the role of boron in the formation of copper-related light-induced degradation. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)