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Keywords:

  • photoconductivity;
  • solvothermal growth;
  • photoelectrochemical solar cells;
  • rutile;
  • TiO2;
  • nanowires

Abstract

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Monocrystalline n-TiO2 nanowires of the rutile phase (Rtl-NWs) grown by a scalable hydrothermal method constitute a functional oxide nanomaterial with potential applications in photovoltaics, photocatalysts, field emitters and electrochemical battery anodes. Carrier transport in Rtl-NWs is of fundamental importance but has hitherto been inferred indirectly via impedance and intensity-modulated spectroscopic techniques. We report an effective electron drift mobility of 1.95 × 10–5 cm2 V–1 s–1 in rutile nanowire arrays directly measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) and space charge limited current techniques. In addition, we measure an equilibrium free electron concentration of ∼1014 cm–3 and a trap density of 3.5 × 1016 cm–3 in rutile nanowires. These results point to the importance of reducing traps to improve charge transport in rutile nanowires.

Transient photocurrents in rutile nanowires.

(© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)