physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 4

August 2008

Volume 2, Issue 4

Pages A45–A59, 145–196

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
    1. Cover Picture: phys. stat. sol. (RRL) 4/2008

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200890006

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      Research on photovoltaic materials and devices is currently one of the most urgent and future oriented areas of solid state physics. The search for highly efficient and durable solar cells will surely trigger new technological developments and thus bears a real chance to have a huge impact on our future energy supply. A strong and steady growth of research activities has been observed during the last years.

      On pp. 145–180 of the present issue of pss – Rapid Research Letters recent advances in photovoltaic materials, theory and simulation, new developments and improvements of technologically relevant devices are reported by authors from the leading European institutions.

      The cover picture relates to the Rapid Research Letter by Carsten Deibel et al. on page 175ff. The authors performed a macroscopic simulation to explain the dependence of the charge carrier mobility on the illuminated current–voltage characteristics of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. In the coloured contour plot the current density in A/m2 is given. The authors find the optimum power conversion efficiency at a mobility of about 10–6 m2/Vs.

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
    1. Back Cover: phys. stat. sol. (RRL) 4/2008

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200890007

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      In the Rapid Research Letter on p. 185 Loreynne Pinsard-Gaudart et al. demonstrate the potential of several new high-temperature superconductors including NdAsFeO0.9F0.1, LaAsFeO0.85F0.15, and SmAsFeO0.8F0.2 for thermoelectric power applications at low temperatures. The iron-oxypnictide compounds, recently discovered as a new class of super- conductors when appropriately doped, exhibit large Seebeck coefficients of the order of –100 μV/K while keeping good electrical conductivity.

      (See also our recent Focus on Thermoelectrics and Nanomaterials, phys. stat. sol. (RRL) 1, No. 6 (November 2007).

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Renewable Energy – From Solar One to tomorrow (pages A45–A46)

      K. W. Böer

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200850056

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  6. NEW IN pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  7. Rapid Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
    1. Surface passivation schemes for high-efficiency n-type Si solar cells (pages 145–147)

      Jan Benick, Oliver Schultz-Wittmann, Jonas Schön and Stefan W. Glunz

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802124

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      The Letter reports on surface passivation of n-type Si solar cells. As it is more difficult to achieve a low surface recomination velocity on highly doped p-type surfaces, the presented aproach is to overcompensate the surface of the deep boron emitter locally by a shallow phosphorus diffusion. This inversion from p- to n-type allows the use of standard technologies for the passivation of highly doped n-type surfaces.

    2. Buried emitter solar cell structures: Decoupling of metallisation geometry and carrier collection geometry of back contacted solar cells (pages 148–150)

      Nils-Peter Harder, Verena Mertens and Rolf Brendel

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802113

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      The authors present the “buried emitter solar cell”, designed for decoupling the metallisation geometry from the emitter geometry of back-junction solar cells without requiring dielectric insulation. The emitter of this novel device covers virtually 100% of the rear side and is electrically shielded against the base metallisation via a p+–n+ junction. This technique implies covering boron-doped p-type emitters with n-type surface layers that can be efficiently surface-passivated by thermal oxidation.

    3. Analysis of the current linearity at low illumination of high-efficiency back-junction back-contact silicon solar cells (pages 151–153)

      Filip Granek, Martin Hermle and Stefan W. Glunz

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802126

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      In this Letter a detailed theoretical and experimental analysis of the low illumination current characteristics of the high-efficiency back-junction back-contact solar cells with different front surface passivation schemes is discussed. Only n-type cells with a front surface field showed a linear relationship between current and illumination intensity.

    4. Decoupling crystalline volume fraction and VOC in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells by using a µc-Si:F:H intrinsic layer (pages 154–156)

      Q. Zhang, E. V. Johnson, Y. Djeridane, A. Abramov and P. Roca i Cabarrocas

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802106

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      The open-circuit voltage of microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is commonly assumed to be limited by the crystalline fraction of the absorber layer. The authors explore this relationship, and show that by using a fluorinated precursor gas, one can overcome this limitation, provided an appropriate interface treatment is implemented. A single junction pin solar cell with an efficiency of 8.3% is demonstrated.

    5. Flexible a-Si:H/nc-Si:H tandem thin film silicon solar cells on plastic substrates with i -layers made by hot-wire CVD (pages 157–159)

      Hongbo Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, A. Borreman, J. K. Rath and Ruud E. I. Schropp

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802109

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      a-Si:H/nc-Si:H tandem thin film silicon solar cell mini-modules containing intrinsic layers made by hot-wire CVD were fabricated on plastic foil with the Helianthos process. The authors report the characteristics of the flexible solar cell modules and compare the results with those obtained on reference glass substrates. The research focus for implementation of the hot-wire CVD technique for the roll-to-roll process is also discussed.

    6. Microcrystalline silicon-carbon alloys as anti-reflection window layers in high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells (pages 160–162)

      Tao Chen, Yuelong Huang, Deren Yang, Reinhard Carius and Friedhelm Finger

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802119

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      Microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) window layers in thin film silicon solar cells show an anti-reflection effect due to the optical matching between the ZnO substrate and the microcrystalline silicon absorber layer. For a window layer thickness of 60 nm, the reflectance decreases to 6% at a wavelength of 575 nm. Using the combined effect of anti-reflection and high transparency of the μc-SiC:H layer, high current densities and good solar cell performance were obtained.

    7. Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector (pages 163–165)

      Didier Dominé, Peter Buehlmann, Julien Bailat, Adrian Billet, Andrea Feltrin and Christophe Ballif

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802118

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      Intermediate reflectors are promising to increase the efficiency of thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells. In this Letter, the interplay between silicon oxide based intermediate reflectors and surface morphology of nanotextured transparent front electrodes is discussed. Micromorph solar cells with 12.6% initial conversion efficiency are obtained using highly transparent ZnO layers with large haze and in situ deposition for the intermediate reflector.

    8. Calibrated numerical model of a GaInP–GaAs dual-junction solar cell (pages 166–168)

      S. P. Philipps, M. Hermle, G. Létay, F. Dimroth, B. M. George and A. W. Bett

      Version of Record online: 14 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802129

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      The authors use a commercially available semiconductor simulation environment for the numerical modeling of a III–V dual-junction solar cell including tunnel diode and Bragg reflector. A very good agreement between measurement and simulation is achieved. The presented numerical model of the complete dual-junction solar cell allows novel possibilities for a deeper understanding as well as for structure optimization of these sophisticated devices.

    9. Interface formation in CdTe solar cells: Nucleation of CdTe on CdS(0001) and (10equation image0) (pages 169–171)

      Bastian Siepchen, Andreas Klein and Wolfram Jaegermann

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802120

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      The Letter reports on the growth characteristics of the solar cell absorber material CdTe on defined CdS surfaces. The characterization by SXPS and LEED revealed a strong dependence upon the substrate orientation. On CdS(0001) a fast nucleation and oriented growth in [111] direction is found which is ascribed to a stable Te termination of the substrate surface.

    10. Influence of the local absorber layer thickness on the performance of ZnO nanorod solar cells (pages 172–174)

      Abdelhak Belaidi, Thomas Dittrich, David Kieven, Julian Tornow, Klaus Schwarzburg and Martha Lux-Steiner

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802092

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      The local In2S3 absorber layer thickness (dlocal) of solar cells with extremely thin absorber based on ZnO nanorod arrays was changed systematically. The highest values of short circuit current density or open circuit voltage were obtained for the lowest or highest dlocal, respectively. A maximum energy conversion efficiency of 3.4% at AM1.5 was achieved.

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      Influence of charge carrier mobility on the performance of organic solar cells (pages 175–177)

      Carsten Deibel, Alexander Wagenpfahl and Vladimir Dyakonov

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802110

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      The power conversion efficiency of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells is due to an interplay of polaron pair dissociation and charge transport. Both processes are strongly dependent on the charge carrier mobility. A macroscopic simulation was performed to explain the mobility dependence of the illuminated current–voltage characteristics (shown in the contour plot, with current density in A/m2). We find the optimum efficiency at a mobility of about 10–6 m2/Vs.

    12. Spectrally selective organic photodiodes (pages 178–180)

      B. Lamprecht, R. Thünauer, S. Köstler, G. Jakopic, G. Leising and J. R. Krenn

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802073

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      The authors report about the fabrication of spectrally selective organic photodiodes and present a green sensitive as well as a red sensitive photodiode. It is shown that the spectral sensitivity of organic photodiodes can be tuned by either choosing organic semiconductors with the appropriate photoresponse or by utilizing adequate device architectures with integrated optical filters.

    13. Early stages of decomposition in Al alloys investigated by X-ray absorption (pages 182–184)

      B. Klobes, T. E. M. Staab and E. Dudzik

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802067

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      The Letter demonstrates the sensitivity of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy to the very early stages of decomposition in Al alloys. Investigating AlCu(Mg) alloys, it is shown that XAFS is one of the few experimental methods with which these early stages can be accessed.

    14. Large Seebeck coefficients in iron-oxypnictides: a new route towards n-type thermoelectric materials (pages 185–187)

      Loreynne Pinsard-Gaudart, David Bérardan, Julien Bobroff and Nita Dragoe

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802125

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      The iron-oxypnictide compounds, recently reported as a new class of superconductors when appropriately doped, exhibit large Seebeck coefficients of the order of –100 μV/K while keeping good electrical conductivity. Their power factor shows a peak at low temperatures, suggesting possible applications of these materials in thermoelectric cooling modules in the liquid nitrogen temperature range.

    15. Very high crystalline quality of thick 4H-SiC epilayers grown from methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) (pages 188–190)

      H. Pedersen, S. Leone, A. Henry, V. Darakchieva, P. Carlsson, A. Gällström and E. Janzén

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802081

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      The stability of the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition process for the growth of SiC is demonstrated. 200 μm thick 4H-SiC epilayers have been grown in just two hours using methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) as single precursor. The very high crystalline quality of the grown epilayer is demonstrated by high resolution X-Ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence.

    16. Synthesis of phosphorus-carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering (pages 191–193)

      A. Furlan, G. K. Gueorguiev, Zs. Czigány, H. Högberg, S. Braun, S. Stafström and L. Hultman

      Version of Record online: 19 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802077

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      The substitution of phosphorus for carbon in graphene induces a fullerene-like (FL) structure. Here, such FL-CPx thin solid films have been realized by magnetron sputter deposition. The films are found to be surprisingly hard and resilient to mechanical deformation.

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      TiO2 nanotubes: photocatalyst for cancer cell killing (pages 194–196)

      M. Kalbacova, J. M. Macak, F. Schmidt-Stein, C. T. Mierke and P. Schmuki

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802080

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      For the first time, self-organized anodic TiO2 nanotube layers are used as a photocatalyst for the photo-induced devitalization of cancer cells (HeLa G). It is shown that for the cancer cells in contact with TiO2 nanotube layers drastic alteration can be triggered upon UV light irradiation. Cancer cells reduce their size and a significant amount of them are killed.

  8. Conference calendar

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  9. Information for authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors

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