physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 6

December 2008

Volume 2, Issue 6

Pages A77–A91, 245–292

  1. Cover Picture

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    1. Cover Picture: phys. stat. sol. (RRL) 6/2008

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200890010

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      The present issue of pss-Rapid Research Letters continues our Focus on Photovoltaics started in August 2008 (Vol. 2, Issue 4). Once again authors from leading European institutes in the field of solar cell research aim to achieve record efficiencies and explore new frontiers in a variety of materials systems and device concepts, ranging from crystalline silicon technology to fullerenes and organic materials.

      The cover picture relates to the Letter by Robert Bock et al. on page 248 ff. On the background of the cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of a screen-printed Al-p+ Si emitter, a back-junction n-type Si solar cell is shown schematically (top left). The bottom-left SEM image is a tilted plan-view of the Al-p+ Si surface after the residual Al paste and the Al–Si eutectic have been removed. The top right image shows the corresponding cross-section of the emitter overlaid by the electron beam induced current signal (blue) with the p–n junction region at a depth of 8 μm. The bottom right graph depicts the measured inverse effective lifetime as a function of the excess carrier density.

  2. Back Cover

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    1. Back Cover: phys. stat. sol. (RRL) 6/2008

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200890011

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      Similar to Al2O3 and Ga2O3 – other well known oxides of the group 13 (IIIA) metals – In2O3 has been considered until recently to possess a well understood structural chemistry with no space for new discoveries. In the Rapid Research Letter on p. 269 Aleksander Gurlo et al. succeed in the high-pressure high-temperature synthesis and recovery of a new orthorhombic In2O3 polymorph with Rh2O3-II-type structure. While compressed (in diamond anvil cells) and laser-heated, both known In2O3 polymorphs, i.e. bixbyite- and corundum-type, undergo a phase transition to the Rh2O3-II-type structure. The direct transition from bixbyite to Rh2O3-II structure has not yet been observed for any other oxide.

  3. Editorial

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    1. You have free access to this content
      The art of rapid peer-reviewed publication (pages A77–A78)

      Stefan Hildebrandt

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200850067

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
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    4. Editorial
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    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
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  6. NEW IN pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
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  7. Rapid Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
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    4. Editorial
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    7. NEW IN pss
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    1. Photoconductance-calibrated photoluminescence lifetime imaging of crystalline silicon (pages 245–247)

      Sandra Herlufsen, Jan Schmidt, David Hinken, Karsten Bothe and Rolf Brendel

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802192

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      The authors present a method to achieve high-resolution lifetime images of multicrystalline silicon wafers, generated by measuring the photoluminescence (PL) signal with a silicon charge-coupled device camera. Absolute values of the excess carrier density are determined by calibrating the PL image by means of contactless photoconductance (PC) measurements. The PC setup is integrated in the camera-based PL setup and therefore identical measurement conditions are realised.

    2. n-type silicon solar cells with surface-passivated screen-printed aluminium-alloyed rear emitter (pages 248–250)

      Robert Bock, Jan Schmidt and Rolf Brendel

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802168

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      Aluminium-doped p-type (Al-p+) silicon emitters fabricated by means of a simple screen-printing process are effectively passivated by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si). The authors demonstrate an independently confirmed record-high conversion efficiency of 19.7%.

    3. The origin of reduced fill factors of emitter-wrap-through-solar cells (pages 251–253)

      Christian Ulzhöfer, Sonja Hermann, Nils-Peter Harder, Pietro P. Altermatt and Rolf Brendel

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802115

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      The authors identify voltage dependent recombination to be responsible for low fill factors of emitter-wrap-through-solar cells (EWT). In addition, it is shown that fill factor losses due to injection level dependent lifetimes, caused by interstitial iron contamination, are further amplified by insufficient EWT via conductivities.

    4. InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem cells for a solar cell configuration with more than three junctions (pages 254–256)

      N. Szabó, B. E. Sağol, U. Seidel, K. Schwarzburg and T. Hannappel

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802141

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      To realize a stacked four junction device with optimised band gaps, InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem cells lattice matched to InP substrates were grown. Time-resolved photoluminescence of the low band gap In0.53Ga0.47As absorber embedded between InP barriers is presented. The InGaAs/GaAsSb tunnel diode structure used in the tandem has been processed into a separate device and its IV curves are discussed.

    5. A luminescent solar concentrator with 7.1% power conversion efficiency (pages 257–259)

      L. H. Slooff, E. E. Bende, A. R. Burgers, T. Budel, M. Pravettoni, R. P. Kenny, E. D. Dunlop and A. Büchtemann

      Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802186

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      A luminescent solar concentrator consisting of a transparent polymer plate containing luminescent particles was made and one or four GaAs solar cells were connected to the edges of the polymer plate. External quantum efficiency and current–voltage measurements were performed, resulting in record power conversion efficiencies of 4.6% (geometrical concentration factor 2.5) and 7.1% (geometrical concentration factor 10), respectively. To our knowledge these are among the highest reported efficiencies.

    6. A fullerene silirane derivative to improve the open circuit voltage in a polymer–fullerene solar cell: a theoretical study (pages 260–262)

      Pasquale Morvillo and Eugenia Bobeico

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802136

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      In this letter quantum chemical calculations are performed on fullerene derivatives successfully used as electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction solar cells with the aim to investigate the LUMO levels. We have proposed a novel type of fullerene, a silirane derivative, with a raised LUMO level in order to minimize the energy loss in the electron transfer from the donor to the acceptor and to increase the open circuit voltage.

    7. Fullerene solubility–current density relationship in polymer solar cells (pages 263–265)

      Joachim A. Renz, Pavel A. Troshin, Gerhard Gobsch, V. F. Razumov and Harald Hoppe

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802199

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      The relationship between the chemical structure of several fullerene derivatives and resulting properties of polymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells was studied. The study reveals a clear connection between the fullerene solubility and the short circuit photocurrent. Once a minimum solubility of approx. 25 mg/ml in chlorobenzene was overcome by the fullerene derivative, the short circuit current density reached a plateau, of about 8–10 mA/cm2.

    8. Monolithically integrated organic waveguide photodiode (pages 266–268)

      B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Jakopic and J. R. Krenn

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802142

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      We demonstrate the monolithic integration of a microstructured organic photodiode with a planar optical stripe waveguide. The manufacturing of this waveguide-integrated organic photodiode is based on an UV photolithography process. The integration of photodiodes with optical waveguides represents an essential building block in the field of optoelectronic-photonic integrated circuits.

    9. High-pressure high-temperature synthesis of Rh2O3-II-type In2O3 polymorph (pages 269–271)

      Aleksander Gurlo, Dmytro Dzivenko, Peter Kroll and Ralf Riedel

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802201

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      The metastability of the bixbyite- and corundum-type In2O3 polymorphs up to 33 GPa at room temperature is shown. While compressed in diamond anvil cells and laser-heated, both polymorphs undergo a phase transition to the Rh2O3-II type structure (space group Pbcn, No 60). The direct transition from bixbyite to the Rh2O3-II structure has not yet been observed for any other oxide.

    10. In-situ X-ray diffraction of mechanically milled β-Al3Mg2 powders (pages 272–274)

      S. Scudino, M. Sakaliyska, M. Stoica, K. B. Surreddi, F. Ali, G. Vaughan, A. R. Yavari and J. Eckert

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802205

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      Although solid solubility extension by ball milling has been known for several years, few detailed works on stability and phase transitions during subsequent heating have been reported so far. Accordingly, this Letter describes an in-situ X-ray diffraction analysis (with synchrotron radiation source) of the phase transitions during controlled heat treatment for the supersaturated Al(Mg) solid solution produced by mechanical milling of single-phase Al3Mg2.

    11. Femtosecond laser-assisted formation of channels in sapphire using KOH solution (pages 275–277)

      Saulius Juodkazis, Yasufumi Nishi and Hiroaki Misawa

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802203

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      Combined direct laser writing by tightly focused laser pulses and wet etching in KOH solution was used to form micro-channels inside crystalline sapphire. The method is expected to be applicable for micro-optical and fluidic applications in other chemically inert and wide-bandgap glasses and crystalline materials.

    12. Growth characteristics of chloride-based SiC epitaxial growth (pages 278–280)

      H. Pedersen, S. Leone, A. Henry, A. Lundskog and E. Janzén

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802183

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      By comparing the process efficiency for different precursor approaches in the chloride-based chemical vapour deposition growth process of SiC epilayers, it is found that at least two Si–Cl bonds are needed in the precursor molecule to get the most efficient process. Further, the process is found to be stable from the growth start and the effect that parameters, such as the C/Si and Cl/Si ratios, have on the growth rate is studied.

    13. Unusual role of the substrate in droplet-induced GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot pairs (pages 281–283)

      Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, K. A. Sablon, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson and G. J. Salamo

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802196

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      As a result of high-temperature droplet epitaxy, the AlGaAs substrate beneath GaAs quantum-dot pairs is no longer immobile. Its reconstruction is observed to define the crystallization of gallium droplets under an arsenic flux. The GaAs quantum-dot pairs are immersed into the substrate and further confined by the re-distributed AlGaAs materials above the substrate plane.

    14. Influence of Mg doping on the behaviour of polaronic light-induced absorption in LiNbO3 (pages 284–286)

      D. Conradi, C. Merschjann, B. Schoke, M. Imlau, G. Corradi and K. Polgár

      Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802176

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      Transient light-induced absorption changes caused by optically generated small polarons are investigated in LiNbO3:Mg below and above the optical-damage-resistance threshold (ODRT). The lifetime of the absorption decay is reduced by three orders of magnitude above the ODRT while a significantly enhanced amplitude is observed in the infrared.

    15. Ultra-subwavelength focusing of light by a monolayer of metallic nanoshells with an adsorbed defect (pages 287–289)

      Vassilios Yannopapas and Nikolay V. Vitanov

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802180

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      V. Yannopapas and N. V. Vitanov demonstrate theoretically that a two-dimensional periodic array of silver-coated silica nanospheres which contains an adsorbed nanosphere of the same type can focus a laser beam of 833 nm wavelength to a tiny area of 12 nm. In addition, the near field within the focus area is increased by three orders of magnitude. This ultra-subwavelength focal point promises breakthrough applications in high-precision lithography and imaging.

    16. Fast-response organic–inorganic hybrid light-emitting diode (pages 290–292)

      Takeshi Fukuda, Bin Wei, Eiichi Suto, Musubu Ichikawa and Yoshio Taniguchi

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200802184

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      This Letter is an important demonstration of the development of a hybrid inorganic–organic light-emitting diode (LED) using ZnS as an electron transport layer. A modulation frequency over 20 MHz has been achieved, and the favourable transient properties make promise of potential applications, e.g. in visible optical communication systems.

  8. Conference calendar

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  9. Information for authors

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    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Research News
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors

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