physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 1‐2

February 2010

Volume 4, Issue 1-2

Pages A1–A29, 1–54

  1. Cover Picture

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    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Editorials
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    7. Research News
    8. NEW IN pss
    9. Expert Opinion
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Conference calendar
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    1. Cover Picture: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 1–2/2010

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201090000

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      Combining delamination technique with conductive AFM, researchers at Forschungszentrum Jülich and Hewlett–Packard Labs have been able to directly investigate the inside of a TiO2 memristive junction and to reveal spatially resolved structural and conductance changes after electroforming and switching. The cover figure shows the IV data of the electrical treatment of such a device as well as the AFM image of its surface after removal of the top electrode. While electroforming results in the creation of a pronounced crater structure with a localized conductance channel, the switching step causes an additional conducting structure next to the forming spot. These microscopic observations provide necessary insights for a better clarification of the electroforming and switching mechanisms. Read on in the Rapid Research Letter on p. 16.

  2. Back Cover

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    1. Back Cover: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 1–2/2010

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201090001

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      Silicon can intercalate about 10 times more Li that the standard graphite anode presently used in Li ion batteries. Thus it would be a very desirable material for high capacity batteries. The large volume expansion encountered upon Li incorporation into Si will fracture bulk Si but not Si nano¬wires. In their Rapid Research Letter on p. 4, H. Föll et al. address the fabrication of Si nanowire arrays with optimized geometry via electrochemical pore etching in Si followed by isotropic chemical etching until the pore walls coalesce and nanowire arrays remain. Galvanically deposited Cu provides the electrical connection and protects the remaining bulk Si. First test batteries made with such Si nanowires anodes not only demostrated the expected high capacity but also showed virtually no capacity losses for more than 60 charge/discharge cycles.

  3. Inside Back Cover

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    1. Inside Back Cover: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 1–2/2010

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201090002

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      Another impressive application of conducting atomic force microscopy in this issue is the characterization of thermoelectric nanowires. The Rapid Research Letter by Jongmin Lee et al. on p. 43 presents power factors of thermoelectric Bi2Te3 nanowires within an alumina matrix. The nanowires were fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition and the electrical conductivity of individual wires was measured with a 40-nm-radius tip at ambient atmosphere. Au segments were deposited to prevent oxidation of the wire ends. Seebeck coefficients of nanowires were determined within the alumina matrix. The presented approach of measuring the thermoelectric power factor of nanowire arrays is straightforward and will prove useful for fast screening of nano- structured thermoelectric materials.

  4. Editorials

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    1. You have free access to this content
      The Best of pss (pages A1–A2)

      Editor-in-Chief Martin Stutzmann

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201050202

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      A day in the life on an editor in 2010 … (pages A3–A4)

      Series Editor Sabine Bahrs

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201050203

  5. Contents

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    1. Contents: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 1–2/2010 (pages A5–A11)

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201050204

  6. Research News

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  7. NEW IN pss

    1. Top of page
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    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Editorials
    6. Contents
    7. Research News
    8. NEW IN pss
    9. Expert Opinion
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Conference calendar
    12. Information for authors
  8. Expert Opinion

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    1. Lithium storage in silicon (pages A21–A23)

      Gerold Neumann and Andreas Würsig

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200950201

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      The immense success of mobile phones and mobile computers in the past two decades can to a high degree be attributed to the introduction to Lithium ion secondary batteries at the beginning of the 1990s. Even though the most common electrode materials in the Lithium ion batteries continue to be lithium cobalt oxide for the cathode and different types of carbon or graphite for the anode, a number of alternative electrode materials exist or are under development. For silicon, major difficulties with mechanical stress upon lithium intercalation have recently been overcome using nano-structures. With a new production process and good stability results, silicon-based anodes may be on the way from the laboratory to an industrial production environment.

  9. Rapid Research Letters

    1. Top of page
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    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Editorials
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    1. Polarization of eigenmodes in laser diode waveguides on semipolar and nonpolar GaN (pages 1–3)

      Jens Rass, Tim Wernicke, Wolfgang G. Scheibenzuber, Ulrich T. Schwarz, Jan Kupec, Bernd Witzigmann, Patrick Vogt, Sven Einfeldt, Markus Weyers and Michael Kneissl

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903325

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      In this paper studies of the gain anisotropy and the optical polarization of eigenmodes in waveguides on semipolar and nonpolar substrates are presented. Resonators along semipolar orientations show the highest gain with TE-polarized emission while resonators aligned along nonpolar directions have lower gain with a rotation of the optical polarization nearly parallel to the c-axis. This effect is caused by birefrigence and crystal anisotropy.

    2. Si nanowire arrays as anodes in Li ion batteries (pages 4–6)

      H. Föll, H. Hartz, E. Ossei-Wusu, J. Carstensen and O. Riemenschneider

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903344

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      The letter presents a technique for producing Si nanowires embedded in a Cu layer suitable for a high-capacity anode in a Li ion battery. The nanowire array has a well-defined geometry optimized for a maximum capacity about 10 times larger than the present graphite standard. First tests of these arrays in half-cells and batteries demonstrated the substantially increased capacity, small irreversible losses, and cycle stability. In particular more than 60 charge/discharge cycles could be realized without loss of capacity.

    3. Quantitative evaluation of electroluminescence images of solar cells (pages 7–9)

      O. Breitenstein, A. Khanna, Y. Augarten, J. Bauer, J.-M. Wagner and K. Iwig

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903304

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      This Letter introduces a fast converging iterative procedure for calculating images of the series resistance (Rs) and saturation current density from two electroluminescence (EL) images. Since Rs is fully regarded for both measurements, both are allowed to be taken at high current. Moreover, for stronger ohmic shunts, an approximate analytic expression is given for converting EL images into shunt images.

    4. Silicon surface passivation by ultrathin Al2O3 films synthesized by thermal and plasma atomic layer deposition (pages 10–12)

      G. Dingemans, R. Seguin, P. Engelhart, M. C. M. van de Sanden and W. M. M. Kessels

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903334

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      Atomic layer deposition (ALD) allows monolayer growth control of very high quality and uniform Al2O3 films for c-Si surface passivation. In this Letter the authors demonstrate that ultrathin Al2O3 films (with a thickness down to 5 nm) synthesized by both thermal and plasma ALD provide a high level of surface passivation as evidenced by surface recombination velocities < 1 cm/s for low resistivity c-Si.

    5. Spatially resolved determination of dark saturation current and series resistance of silicon solar cells (pages 13–15)

      Markus Glatthaar, Jonas Haunschild, Martin Kasemann, Johannes Giesecke, Wilhelm Warta and Stefan Rein

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903290

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      A new method is presented to image quantitatively series resistance and dark saturation current density on silicon solar cells. Such images can greatly help to distinguish between material- and process-related defects. As the method is based on photoluminescence imaging it is non-destructive and fast. It can therefore be a valuable tool for quality control especially when cost effective wafer material like umg-silicon is used for cell production.

    6. Morphological and electrical changes in TiO2 memristive devices induced by electroforming and switching (pages 16–18)

      Ruth Münstermann, J. Joshua Yang, John Paul Strachan, Gilberto Medeiros-Ribeiro, Regina Dittmann and Rainer Waser

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903347

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      In this letter the authors investigate the inside of a TiO2 memristive junction after electroforming and subsequent switching. Combining a chemically clear delamination technique with conductive AFM they demonstrate that electroforming results in the creation of a localized conductance channel induced by oxygen evolution while subsequent resistive switching causes an additional conducting structure next to the forming spot.

    7. Neutralization of quantum stiction with interlocking arrays of gold nanopillars (pages 19–21)

      Vassilios Yannopapas and Nikolay V. Vitanov

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903280

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      One of the most frequent reasons for failure of NEMS/MEMS devices is the stiction of adjacent surfaces. This stiction is of quantum nature and is a manifestation of vacuum fluctuations (Casimir effect). In this Letter, the authors demonstrate numerically by employing a first-principles method that, when adjacent surfaces are both coated with nanoparticle chains or nanopillars in an interleaving pattern, they repel each other at short distances leading to neutralization of quantum stiction.

    8. Imaging ferroelectric domains in multiferroics using a low-energy electron microscope in the mirror operation mode (pages 22–24)

      Salia Cherifi, Riccardo Hertel, Stéphane Fusil, Hélène Béa, Karim Bouzehouane, Julie Allibe, Manuel Bibes and Agnès Barthélémy

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903297

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      It is demonstrated that ferroelectric domains can be imaged with submicron resolution by exploiting the sensitivity of low-energy electrons to electric surface potential variations. The contrast mechanism of this electron “mirror” mode results from charge-induced distortions of the electrostatic equipotential surfaces near the sample. It is argued that this zero-impact direct imaging method is well suited for the investigation of dynamic processes in magnetic multiferroics, especially when combined with X-ray photoemission electron microscopy.

    9. Investigation on (Sr,Co)Bi2Nb2O9 thin films: A lead-free room temperature multiferroics (pages 25–27)

      Ashok Kumar, Bryan Collazo, Dilsom Sánchez and R. S. Katiyar

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903321

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      Novel room temperature single phase multiferroic 10% Co-doped SCBN thin films were fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The grains are homogeneously distributed with an average size of ∼100 nm. The change in the shape of the magnetic hysteresis and the values of the coercive field along the in-plane and out-of-plane MH hysteresis indicate magnetic anisotropy. The presence of magnetic moments and electric dipoles in the same plane suggests mutual cooperation between electric and magnetic ordering at the mesoscopic and microscopic scale.

    10. Bipolar resistive switching in amorphous titanium oxide thin film (pages 28–30)

      Hu Young Jeong, Jeong Yong Lee, Min-Ki Ryu and Sung-Yool Choi

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903383

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      The authors report a resistive switching mechanism in Al/a-TiO2/Al RRAM devices using isothermal and temperature-dependent electrical measurements. The origin of the resistance switching is the change of the barrier width of the top interface layer, caused by the bias-induced drift of oxygen vacancies. This interpretation gives a deeper fundamental understanding of the bipolar resistive switching mechanisms of binary oxide RRAM.

    11. Inversion domain boundaries in GaN studied by X-ray microprobe (pages 31–33)

      Gema Martínez-Criado, Andrea Somogyi, Benito Alén, Claudio Miskys, Remi Tucoulou, Peter Cloetens, Juan Angel Sans and Jean Susini

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903367

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      This letter features the application of synchrotron spectro-microscopic techniques to the examination of inversion domain boundaries in GaN. The authors studied intentionally formed inversion domain boundaries in a GaN lateral polarity heterostructure. Using XRF, XANES and XEOL, field-driven electrodiffusion and impurity influences were investigated at the length scale of the x-ray beam size.

    12. Electronic properties of two-dimensional hydrogenated and semihydrogenated hexagonal boron nitride sheets (pages 34–36)

      Yanli Wang

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903374

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      In this letter, the author investigates the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional pristine, hydrogenated, and semihydrogenated hexagonal boron nitride sheets. It is found that hydrogenization significantly modifies the properties of boron nitride sheets. Compared to the pristine sheet, hydrogenization leads to quite interesting and different behavior.

    13. Ultrasharp Si nanowires produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (pages 37–39)

      J. Červenka, M. Ledinský, H. Stuchlíková, J. Stuchlík, Z. Výborný, J. Holovský, K. Hruška, A. Fejfar and J. Kočka

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903348

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      In this Letter the authors report on a very fast growth process of conical silicon nanowires by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. These conical nanowires display extraordinary thin and sharp tips with width below 10 nm. Their capability to act as efficient light traps makes them particularly interesting for various applications in photovoltaics, electronics and atomic force microscopy.

    14. Macroporous Si as an absorber for thin-film solar cells (pages 40–42)

      Rolf Brendel and Marco Ernst

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903372

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      This letter demonstrates the separation of thin, randomly textured, macroporous silicon layers from monocrystalline silicon wafers by means of electromechanical etching. Optical absorption measurements and carrier lifetime measurements prove that high power conversion efficiencies are feasible with thin-film crystalline Si cells that have a macroporous absorber.

    15. Power factor measurements of bismuth telluride nanowires grown by pulsed electrodeposition (pages 43–45)

      Jongmin Lee, Yunseok Kim, Laurent Cagnon, Ulrich Gösele, Jaeyoung Lee and Kornelius Nielsch

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903368

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      This letter reports on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of individual Bi2Te3 nanowires. The ends of thermoelectric Bi2Te3 nanowires within an alumina matrix were exposed to ambient atmosphere. The authors then used a conductive atomic force microscope with a Pt tip of 40 nm radius to directly contact selected individual wires.

    16. Conductance through a redox system in the Coulomb blockade regime: Many-particle effects and influence of electronic correlations (pages 46–48)

      Sabine Tornow and Gertrud Zwicknagl

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903402

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      The Letter is concerned with the transport through a solvated donor–acceptor system beyond the independent electron approximation for voltages exceeding the Coulomb repulsion at the donor site. Depending on the relative sizes of the effective on-site and inter-site Coulomb interactions on one side and the reorganization energy on the other side we find either negative differential resistance or current enhancement.

    17. Milliwatt power AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (pages 49–51)

      Yitao Liao, Christos Thomidis, Chen-kai Kao, Adam Moldawer, Wei Zhang, Yi-chung Chang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, Enrico Bellotti and Theodore D. Moustakas

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903400

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      This Letter reports the growth by plasma-assisted MBE of UV-LEDs emitting in the wavelength range between 300 and 277 nm with an output power in excess of 1 mW measured at the wafer level. The active region of such LEDs was grown under Ga-rich conditions, which lead to band structure potential fluctuations and thus to high internal quantum efficiency.

    18. Gradient-doping of a conductive polymer film with a layer-by-layer approach (pages 52–54)

      Gunar Kaune and Peter Müller-Buschbaum

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903413

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      The authors present a method to achieve a graded doping profile of 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF) as dopant of the conductive polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK). The installed profile is of (pp–p–i)-type and will have large application potential in organic solar cells.

  10. Conference calendar

    1. Top of page
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    5. Editorials
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    7. Research News
    8. NEW IN pss
    9. Expert Opinion
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Conference calendar
    12. Information for authors
    1. Conference calendar: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 1–2/2010 (page A27)

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200950207

  11. Information for authors

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