physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 10‐11

November 2011

Volume 5, Issue 10-11

Pages A103–A115, 359–411

  1. Cover Picture

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    1. Cover Picture: Memristive switching behavior in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 by incorporating an oxygen-deficient layer (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10–11/2011)

      Sangsu Park, Seungjae Jung, Manzar Siddik, Minseok Jo, Joonmyoung Lee, Jubong Park, Wootae Lee, Seonghyun Kim, Sharif Md. Sadaf, Xinjun Liu and Hyunsang Hwang

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190023

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      For resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices based on Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO), reliable memristive switching properties have been achieved by replacing the conventional reactive metal electrode with an oxygen-deficient PCMO3–x layer. Based on electrical characterization results and X-ray photo- electron spectroscopy analysis, Sangsu Park et al. (pp. 409–411) discuss the role of the PCMO3–x layer in resistive switching. When a positive bias is applied to the top electrode, oxygen ions (O2–) are attracted to the PCMO3 region; this increases the resistance of PCMO3–x, leading to a high-resistance state. Conversely, when a negative bias is applied to the top electrode, the O2– ions move back to the PCMO3–x layer, which in turn decreases the resistance of PCMO3–x, leading to a low-resistance state. Hence, the oxygen vacancy/ion migration between stoichiometric PCMO (PCMO3) and PCMO3–x causes the total resistance state of the device to change.

  2. Issue Information

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  3. Inside Back Cover

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    1. Inside Back Cover: Large-area fabrication of equidistant free-standing Si crystals on nanoimprinted glass (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10–11/2011)

      Tobias Sontheimer, Eveline Rudigier-Voigt, Matthias Bockmeyer, Carola Klimm, Peter Schubert-Bischoff, Christiane Becker and Bernd Rech

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The implementation of periodic crystalline Si nanostructures into large-area high-quality photovoltaic and photonic devices requires the development of a versatile, scalable and cost-effective preparation process. By combining exclusively low-cost preparation techniques, such as nanoimprint lithography, high-rate electron beam evaporation of amorphous Si, solid phase crystallization and etching, Sontheimer et al. (pp. 376–378) developed a fabrication process for tailored periodic arrays of free-standing Si crystals on large areas of 50 cm2. The cover shows SEM images of a designed structure of 2 μm tall free-standing Si crystals on a two-dimensional periodic imprinted structure protruding from an underlying polycrystalline Si base layer. The preparation process is based on the distinct microstructure of the deposited Si, with compact Si forming at the tip and bottom of the imprinted structure and porous Si located at its walls. The porous areas resist the crystallization process and can finally be removed in a selective etching process.

  4. Back Cover

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    1. Back Cover: Reflective interferometric gas sensing using nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10–11/2011)

      Tushar Kumeria and Dusan Losic

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) fabricated by self-ordering anodization process attracted remarkable attention, due to its highly ordered and size-controlled pore structures, the simple fabrication and exceptional properties. In their Letter on pp. 406–408 Kumeria and Losic present the application of AAO for optical gas sensing based on reflective interferometric spectroscopy (RiFS). The cover shows a scanning electron microscopy image of AAO pores, the scheme of light reflection from gold coated pore structures, the adsorption of gas molecules (H2S), and changes of the interference signal. The gas detection method is based on changes (shifting) of the interference signal from the metal coated AAO porous layer due to gas adsorption. By changing the metal coating or introducing specific surface chemistry, this method can be applied for sensing different gases in a range of applications.

  5. Contents

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    7. NEW IN pss
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    9. Rapid Research Letters
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  6. NEW IN pss

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  7. Expert Opinion

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    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Silicon: the gulf between crystalline and amorphous (pages 359–360)

      D. A. Drabold

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105444

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      Like many materials, silicon may be grown in crystalline and amorphous phases: The images show silicon in the diamond structure (left) and a model of the amorphous Si due to Vink and Barkema (right). One of the prime questions in the area is “what is the energy difference between these materials”? Kail and coworkers have measured the energy difference between the two structures, and demonstrate (in this issue on pp. 361ff.) the existence of amorphous structures only above a configurational energy gap separating the crystalline and amorphous states.

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    1. The configurational energy gap between amorphous and crystalline silicon (pages 361–363)

      F. Kail, J. Farjas, P. Roura, C. Secouard, O. Nos, J. Bertomeu and P. Roca i Cabarrocas

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105333

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      In this Letter, the authors report on values of the crystallization enthalpy of a-Si(:H) that cover a wide range (200–480 J/g), whose minimum value is close to the predicted minimum strain energy of relaxed a-Si (240 ± 25 J/g). This result gives a reliable value for the configurational energy gap between a-Si and c-Si.

    2. Binding energy of singlet excitons and charge transfer complexes in MDMO-PPV:PCBM solar cells (pages 364–366)

      Julia Kern, Sebastian Schwab, Carsten Deibel and Vladimir Dyakonov

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105430

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      In organic solar cells, the primary photoexcitations are usually strongly bound due to the low dielectric constants inherent to organic semiconductors, making thermal dissociation unfeasible. In order to contribute to the understanding of the basic working principles of organic solar cells, the binding energy of both the singlet exciton in MDMO-PPV and the charge transfer complex in MDMO-PPV:PCBM is accurately determined. This is achieved by relating field dependent photoluminescence measurements to the established Onsager–Braun theory.

    3. Photovoltaic effect of BiFeO3/poly(3-hexylthiophene) heterojunction (pages 367–369)

      Zhike Liu and Feng Yan

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105411

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      A BiFeO3/poly(3-hexylthiophene) heterojunction for organic solar cells was used for the first time. The photovoltaic performance is related to the thermal annealing conditions of BiFeO3 films. The power conversion efficiencies of the devices are comparable to those of solar cells based on typical semiconductor oxides (TiO2 or ZnO) and conjugated polymers, indicating that BiFeO3 is a promising n-type semiconductor for photovoltaic applications.

    4. Contamination of silicon by iron at temperatures below 800 °C (pages 370–372)

      J. D. Murphy and R. J. Falster

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105388

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Iron-related defects are deleterious in silicon-based integrated circuits and photovoltaics. In this Letter, data on the contamination of silicon by iron at low temperatures are reported. Substantially more iron can be incorporated than expected from extrapolation of established higher temperature data, with an enhancement factor of ∼20 times at 600 °C. The results have important implications for recently-proposed low temperature gettering processes for multicrystalline silicon photovoltaics.

    5. Local photoconductivity of microcrystalline silicon thin films measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (pages 373–375)

      Martin Ledinský, Antonín Fejfar, Aliaksei Vetushka, Jiří Stuchlík, Bohuslav Rezek and Jan Kočka

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105413

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      Local dark and photo currents were observed by photo-conductive atomic force microscopy (PC-AFM) on microcrystalline silicon thin films. Photocurrents were induced either by white light (yellow rectangle on the left side of the image) or by the AFM laser diode (red rectangle on the right). With the AFM laser diode switched off, the maps of dark local current and dark local IV characteristics were measured for the first time.

    6. Large-area fabrication of equidistant free-standing Si crystals on nanoimprinted glass (pages 376–378)

      Tobias Sontheimer, Eveline Rudigier-Voigt, Matthias Bockmeyer, Carola Klimm, Peter Schubert-Bischoff, Christiane Becker and Bernd Rech

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105437

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The integration of periodic crystalline silicon nanostructures into large-area high-quality photovoltaic and photonic applications requires developing versatile, scalable and cost-effective preparation processes. By combining exclusively low-cost fabrication techniques, such as nanoimprint lithography, high-rate electron beam evaporation of amorphous silicon, solid phase crystallization and etching, the authors developed a scalable preparation process for periodic arrays of free-standing Si crystals on large areas of 50 cm2.

    7. Pulse duration impact on laser structured ZnO:Al (pages 379–381)

      Marc Sämann and Markus B. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105364

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      This Letter demonstrates a laser structuring process for ZnO:Al to enhance light trapping of near infrared radiation in solar cells. The laser pulse duration is crucial for maintaining high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity due to oxygen effusion during the melt phase.

    8. Origin of ferromagnetism in BaTiO3 nanoparticles (pages 382–384)

      Safa Golrokh Bahoosh, Steffen Trimper and Julia M. Wesselinowa

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105419

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      Experimental observations show that nanocrystalline BaTiO3 offers ferromagnetism and a non-zero polarization at room-temperature. Within microscopic models we find the magnetization (red curve) and the polarization (blue curve) of the nanoparticles. The magnetic behaviour is due to the occurrence of Ti ions at the surface of the nanoparticles with nonzero spin. Below a critical size (characterized by the number of shells) the system reveals multiferroic behaviour.

    9. Tunnel injection emitter structures with barriers comprising nanobridges (pages 385–387)

      Alexander V. Senichev, Vadim G. Talalaev, Jens W. Tomm, Nikolai D. Zakharov, Boris V. Novikov, Peter Werner and George E. Cirlin

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105295

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      The conditions for the excitation transfer between quantum wells (QW) and quantum dots (QD) are considered. The presence of nanobridges between quantum dots and quantum wells is found to push the transfer. This effect becomes even enhanced if these nanobridges contain confined hole states.

    10. Nanoscale hot electron transport across Cu/n-Si(100) and Cu/n-Si(111) interfaces (pages 388–390)

      S. Parui, J. R. R. van der Ploeg, K. G. Rana and T. Banerjee

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105401

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      In this Letter, we demonstrate hot electron transport at the nanoscale in highly textured Cu thin films on n-Si(100) and n-Si(111). Using the versatile technique of ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM), we find the transmission to be twice larger for all Cu films on Si(111) than on Si(100). Energy dependent hot electron attenuation length in Cu has been measured and found to be larger for Cu/Si(111) than for Cu/Si(100).

    11. Strong magnetoelectric coupling in highly oriented ZnO films deposited on Metglas substrates (pages 391–393)

      Ravindranath Viswan, David Gray, Yaojin Wang, Yanxi Li, David Berry, Jiefang Li and D. Viehland

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105357

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      In this Letter, the authors report the deposition of highly c-axis oriented ZnO films on Metglas substrates at a low temperature of 300 °C. A large converse magnetoelectric (CME) coefficient of about 3 × 10–6 s/m and a direct magnetoelectric (DME) coefficient of 47 mV/cm Oe were measured at a low dc magnetic field of 17 Oe and at a frequency of 1 kHz revealing a strong ME coupling in these layers.

    12. Nitrates: A new class of electrolytes for the rapid anodic growth of self-ordered oxide nanopore layers on Ti and Ta (pages 394–396)

      Wei Wei, Robin Kirchgeorg, Kiyoung Lee, Seulgi So and Patrik Schmuki

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105377

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      Electrochemical self-organized formation of various oxide nanomaterials has received a wide interest in research and technology. In this Letter, the authors demonstrate a new class of electrolytes, that is, nitrate based organic electrolytes that allow the formation of formerly not known self-organized anodic oxide nanoscale morphologies. In these nitrate/organic electrolytes, highly ordered nanoporous oxide structures with through-hole morphology can be grown on metal substrate such as Ti and Ta.

    13. Epitaxial CVD growth of sp2-hybridized boron nitride using aluminum nitride as buffer layer (pages 397–399)

      Mikhail Chubarov, Henrik Pedersen, Hans Högberg, Vanya Darakchieva, Jens Jensen, Per O. Å. Persson and Anne Henry

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105410

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      The route to achieve epitaxial growth of high quality sp2 hybridized boron nitride (BN) films on sapphire using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is discussed in this Letter. It is shown that an AlN buffer layer is necessary to grow high quality sp2 BN on sapphire as it can be deduced from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements with and without AlN buffer layer. Growth process, quality of the grown film and epitaxial relations between Al2O3/AlN/BN are discussed.

    14. X-ray reciprocal space mapping study on semipolar InAlN films coherently grown on ZnO substrates (pages 400–402)

      Tomofumi Kajima, Atsushi Kobayashi, Kazuma Shimomoto, Kohei Ueno, Tomoaki Fujii, Jitsuo Ohta, Hiroshi Fujioka and Masaharu Oshima

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105380

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      In this Letter, Kajima et al. report on the growth of high-quality semipolar InAlN films on nearly lattice-matched ZnO substrates at room temperature. The figure shows the X-ray reciprocal space mapping for semipolar InAlN and ZnO. The points align vertically, which indicates that the InAlN film grew coherently on the ZnO substrate. The growth of high-quality film at room temperature may be attributed to this coherency.

    15. The effects of a HfO2 buffer layer on Al2O3-passivated indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (pages 403–405)

      Youngbin Ko, Seokhwan Bang, Seungjun Lee, Soyeon Park, Joohyun Park and Hyeongtag Jeon

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105340

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, the authors report the effects of applying a HfO2 buffer layer between an Al2O3 passivation layer and an IGZO channel layer. A HfAlxOy layer was formed at the Al2O3/HfO2 interface. As a result, the water vapor transmission rate was reduced and changes of the electrical characteristics were prevented as well.

    16. Reflective interferometric gas sensing using nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) (pages 406–408)

      Tushar Kumeria and Dusan Losic

      Version of Record online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105425

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The application of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) for reflective interferometric gas sensing is reported in this Letter. Gas detection is based on changes of the interference signal from metal coated AAO porous layer due to gas adsorption. Changing the metal coating or introducing specific AAO surface chemistry can extend this generic method for detection of different gases in a range of biomedical and environmental applications.

    17. Memristive switching behavior in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 by incorporating an oxygen-deficient layer (pages 409–411)

      Sangsu Park, Seungjae Jung, Manzar Siddik, Minseok Jo, Joonmyoung Lee, Jubong Park, Wootae Lee, Seonghyun Kim, Sharif Md. Sadaf, Xinjun Liu and Hyunsang Hwang

      Version of Record online: 1 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105317

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As shown in this Letter, reliable memristive switching properties of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO)-based RRAM devices have been achieved by replacing the conventional reactive metal electrode with an oxygen-deficient PCMO3–x layer. Based on electrical characterization results and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, Sangsu Park et al. discuss the role of the PCMO3–x layer in resistive switching. Oxygen ion migration that occurs at the interface between stoichiometric PCMO (PCMO3) and PCMO3–x is considered to be an essential mechanism for the switching behavior.

  9. Conference calendar

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    3. Issue Information
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    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Expert Opinion
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Conference calendar
    11. Information for authors
  10. Information for authors

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Inside Back Cover
    5. Back Cover
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Expert Opinion
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Conference calendar
    11. Information for authors

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