physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 4

April 2011

Volume 5, Issue 4

Pages A43–A55, 131–168

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. Cover Picture: Luminescence imaging for inline characterisation in silicon photovoltaics (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 4/2011)

      Thorsten Trupke, Jørgen Nyhus and Jonas Haunschild

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190008

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The growing pressure in photovoltaics (PV) production to achieve higher cell efficiencies at low cost is requiring improved quality control and process monitoring tools. With its contactless and non-destructive nature and short measurement times, photoluminescence (PL) imaging is perfectly suited to be used for such inline monitoring across the entire PV value chain. Megapixel PL images on silicon bricks, unprocessed wafers, partially processed wafers and fully processed cells can be captured with acquisition times of typically a few seconds or less than one second. In their Review@RRL article (pp. 131–137), Trupke et al. review several specific PL imaging applications allowing quantitative spatial information to be gained about a variety of crucial material and device parameters. The cover image shows a detail of the PL image taken on a compensated 6 × 6 inch silicon brick.

  2. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 4/2011

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190009

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. Back Cover: Monitoring of the growth of microcrystalline silicon by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using in-situ Raman spectroscopy (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 4/2011)

      S. Muthmann, F. Köhler, M. Meier, M. Hülsbeck, R. Carius and A. Gordijn

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190010

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) is a well-established absorber layer material in thin-film silicon solar cells. For depositing intrinsic μc-Si:H films, especially the parallel plate plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique is used. To allow for an early reaction on process disturbances, large effort has been put in studies to understand and control the deposition process in-situ. In their Letter on pp. 144–146, Muthmann et al. report on a setup that enables in-situ measurements of Raman spectra during the PECVD of μc-Si:H. They use an electrode design which is capable to be implemented in large-area deposition systems. A showerhead electrode with an optical feed through enables optical access to the growing film under normal incidence. The film crystallinity is determined from the measured Raman spectra and it is possible to directly measure the response of film growth to a change of – for example – the source gas composition. The results are in excellent agreement with depth-sensitive measurements carried out on the same sample after deposition, as shown on the cover image.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. Contents: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 4/2011 (pages A43–A47)

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201150315

  5. NEW IN pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
  6. Conference calendar

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. Conference calendar: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 4/2011 (page A51)

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201150317

  7. Reviews@RRL

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. Luminescence imaging for inline characterisation in silicon photovoltaics (pages 131–137)

      Thorsten Trupke, Jørgen Nyhus and Jonas Haunschild

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201084028

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photoluminescence imaging has recently been developed into an important characterisation tool for silicon samples. With short measurement times and high spatial resolution it offers fascinating new opportunities, for example for process monitoring in photovoltaic production across the entire value chain. Some of these applications are reviewed here.

  8. Rapid Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. EPR spectroscopy of weak exchange interactions between Co2+ ions in ZnO (pages 138–140)

      D. V. Azamat, A. Dejneka, V. A. Trepakov, L. Jastrabik, M. Fanciulli, V. Y. Ivanov, M. Godlewski, V. I. Sokolov, J. Rosa and A. G. Badalyan

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105014

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements have unambiguously shown the presence of exchanged-coupled Co2+ pairs in the heavily doped ZnO single crystals. This Letter reports on the first determination of the exchange tensor components of Co2+ dimers that are incorporated into the ZnO lattice in a highly selective way. The detailed EPR spectra are due to weakly ferromagnetically coupled next-nearest-neighbour Co2+ ions.

    2. A facile approach for decorating quantum dots deep inside of anodically grown self-organized TiO2 nanotubes (pages 141–143)

      Nabeen K. Shrestha, Seog Joon Yoon, Deok Yeon Lee, Misun Lee, Iseul Lim, MyungMo Sung, Heejoon Ahn and Sung-Hwan Han

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201005020

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      In this Letter the authors demonstrate how CdS and PbS quantum dots can be made to decorate the nanotube walls of anodically grown TiO2 all the way to the bottom of the film. Based on a SILAR (successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction) approach assisted by the evacuation of trapped air pockets, the passage for quantum dot precursor materials is cleared. This achieves good uniformity of the resulting quantum dot distribution.

    3. Monitoring of the growth of microcrystalline silicon by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using in-situ Raman spectroscopy (pages 144–146)

      S. Muthmann, F. Köhler, M. Meier, M. Hülsbeck, R. Carius and A. Gordijn

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This Letter reports about in-situ Raman measurements during the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of microcrystalline silicon. Measurements of the Raman crystallinity of a growing film are compared to depth resolved measurements obtained ex-situ on an etch crater. The agreement of both techniques shows that in-situ Raman spectroscopy can be an excellent way to obtain a better understanding and control of the deposition of microcrystalline silicon.

    4. 19.4%-efficient large-area fully screen-printed silicon solar cells (pages 147–149)

      Sebastian Gatz, Helge Hannebauer, Rene Hesse, Florian Werner, Arne Schmidt, Thorsten Dullweber, Jan Schmidt, Karsten Bothe and Rolf Brendel

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105045

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      The authors demonstrate an improved energy conversion efficiency up to 19.4% of industrially feasible solar cells with passivated emitter and rear (PERC). As rear surface passivation they use a thermally grown silicon dioxide/silicon nitride stack and an atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide/silicon nitride stack. A detailed analysis shows a significantly reduced surface recombination velocity and an increased rear reflectance compared to conventional solar cells with full-area aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF).

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Magnetization of Fe-oxide based nanocomposite tuned by surface charging (pages 150–152)

      Thomas Traußnig, Stefan Topolovec, Kashif Nadeem, Dorothée Vinga Szabó, Heinz Krenn and Roland Würschum

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201004483

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, the magnetization of a porous γ-Fe2O3–Pt nanocomposite is studied under the influence of charging the surfaces of the porous structure in an electrolyte. Reversible variations of the magnetization of up to 10.4% could be achieved upon charging. The present concept of tuning of magnetization may open up one promising niche path towards the current challenging efforts of controlling magnetism by electric fields.

    6. Wide band gap and p-type conductive Cu–Nb–O films (pages 153–155)

      Seiji Yamazoe, Shunsuke Yanagimoto and Takahiro Wada

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105010

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The authors found that Cu–Nb–O films (fabricated by PLD) post-annealed at 300 °C exhibited a high transmittance in the visible region (band gap = 2.6 eV) and high p-type conductivity. It is demonstrated that the Cu–Nb–O films would be a degenerate semiconductor. Cu–Nb–O films with a thickness of 100 nm and fabricated from a target with the optimum Cu/Nb ratio of 0.9 exhibited the highest p-type conductivity of 116 S cm–1, a high value compared to wide band gap p-type conductive oxides reported in the literature.

    7. Structural evolution of self-assisted GaAs nanowires grown on Si(111) (pages 156–158)

      Andreas Biermanns, Steffen Breuer, Anton Davydok, Lutz Geelhaar and Ullrich Pietsch

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using X-ray diffraction techniques, Biermanns et al. monitor the ratio between wurtzite and zinc-blende phases during growth of GaAs nanowires on Si(111) by self-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The authors show that during the initial stage of growth, wurtzite forms in significant abundance, whereas the zinc-blende phase dominates in long nanowires.

    8. Efficient interdigitated back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells (pages 159–161)

      Nicola Mingirulli, Jan Haschke, Ralf Gogolin, Rafel Ferré, Tim F. Schulze, J. Düsterhöft, Nils-Peter Harder, Lars Korte, Rolf Brendel and Bernd Rech

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, back-contacted amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells with good fill factors and high current values are presented. Aperture solar cell efficiencies up to 20.2±0.4% are measured, demonstrating the functionality of this cell architecture.

    9. Vertically integrated nanogenerator based on ZnO nanowire arrays (pages 162–164)

      Aifang Yu, Hongyu Li, Haoying Tang, Tengjiao Liu, Peng Jiang and Zhong Lin Wang

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105120

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, a technique is reported to construct a vertically integrated nanogenerator (VI-NG) based on ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays. The vertical integration of the multi-NG provides a feasible technique for effectively converting mechanical energies to electricity from environment.

    10. Patterned deposition by plasma enhanced spatial atomic layer deposition (pages 165–167)

      Paul Poodt, Bas Kniknie, Annalisa Branca, Hans Winands and Fred Roozeboom

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201004542

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced spatial atomic layer deposition reactor has been developed, to deposit Al2O3 films from trimethyl aluminum and an He/O2 plasma. This technique is used for 2D patterned deposition in a single in-line process by making use of switched and localized plasma sources. This opens the way for high-throughput ALD on temperature sensitive substrates, for applications like flexible electronics and other flexible thin film applications.

  9. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum Efficient solar energy conversion of TiO2 nanotubes produced by rapid breakdown anodization – a comparison [Phys. Status Solidi RRL 1, No. 4, 135–137 (2007)] (page 168)

      R. Hahn, T. Stergiopoulos, J. M. Macak, D. Tsoukleris, S. P. Albu, D. Kim, A. Ghicov, J. Kunze, P. Falaras and P. Schmuki

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105105

      This article corrects:
  10. Information for authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Conference calendar
    8. Reviews@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Erratum
    11. Information for authors
    1. Information for authors: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 4/2011 (pages A54–A55)

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201150318

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