physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 5‐6

June 2011

Volume 5, Issue 5-6

Pages A57–A71, 169–216

  1. Cover Picture

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    1. Cover Picture: Resistive switching of crossbar memories with carbon nanotube electrodes (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5–6/2011)

      Jun Shen, Chaoying Zhang and Qing Chen

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190011

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      Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is a promising candidate for future memories. However, with traditional metal electrodes made by lithography, the scaling potential of RRAM is limited. As demonstrated in the Rapid Research Letter by J. Shen et al. (pp. 205–207), a carbon nanotube/ oxide/metal/crossed carbon nanotube (COMC) structure was first fabricated and shown to be capable of stable bipolar resistive switching. The linewidth of the crossbar is smaller than 20 nm and can be further scaled down by using smaller carbon nanotubes. The reset current is as small as 10 μA, which is of great advantage for low power applications. Electroforming-free planar devices were also fabricated to be compared with the COMC devices. The resistive switching with carbon nanotube electrodes could be extended to other one-dimensional nanowires or nanotubes with cylindrical surface.

  2. Issue Information

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    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  3. Back Cover

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    1. Back Cover: Epitaxial upward transport of Al at the beginning of the Al-induced layer exchange process (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5–6/2011)

      Balaji Birajdar, Tobias Antesberger, Martin Stutzmann and Erdmann Spiecker

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190013

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      The Rapid Research Letter by Birajdar et al. on pp. 172–174 reports on the Al transport during the early stage of Al-induced layer exchange (ALILE) and crystallization reaction, a promising process for the fabrication of polycrystalline Si films to be used in thin film transistors and solar cells. The authors report that not only vertical but also lateral redistribution of Al occurs during the ALILE and crystallization reaction. This yields Al deficient dendritic cell centers surrounded by an about 10 μm wide Al excess zone containing epitaxial islands of “pushed-up” Al whose number density and size decrease with increasing distance from the reaction front as illustrated in the Al elemental map acquired in the transmission electron microscope. The corresponding sketches in the cross-section geometry are shown on the right.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  5. NEW IN pss

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  6. Frontispiece

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    1. Frontispiece: Evidence of anti free volume creation during deformation induced nanocrystallization of Nd–Fe–B metallic glass (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5–6/2011)

      Shashwat Shukla, Agnieszka Banas and Raju Ramanujan

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190014

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      Shukla et al. (pp. 169–171) report EXAFS studies on the time evolution of the structure of Nd–Fe–B metallic glass during mechanical milling. Negative as well as positive fluctuations in the atomic density were observed. As demonstrated by the authors, deformation does not always induce vacancy-type (free volume) defects in amorphous alloys; instead, vacancy–interstitial pair-type (free volume – anti-free volume) defects can form by athermal mechanisms. Such defects migrate during milling, thus enhancing the diffusion, and the consequent atomic redistribution induces nanocrystallization in the amorphous matrix.

  7. Rapid Research Letters

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    1. Evidence of anti free volume creation during deformation induced nanocrystallization of Nd–Fe–B metallic glass (pages 169–171)

      Shashwat Shukla, Agnieszka Banas and Raju Ramanujan

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105118

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      Deformation induces the formation of vacancy–interstitial pair type “free volume – anti free volume” defects in metallic glasses. Enhanced diffusion due to these defects leads to atomic redistribution and precipitation of nanocrystals in the amorphous matrix. In their Letter on page 169ff., the authors report on a study employing EXAFS to follow the time evolution of the structure of Nd–Fe–B metallic glass undergoing nanocrystallization during mechanical milling.

    2. Epitaxial upward transport of Al at the beginning of the Al-induced layer exchange process (pages 172–174)

      Balaji Birajdar, Tobias Antesberger, Martin Stutzmann and Erdmann Spiecker

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105110

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      Using chemical mapping in scanning and transmission electron microscopy the authors report a key finding that not only vertical but also lateral redistribution of Al occurs during Al induced layer exchange (ALILE) and crystallization reaction. This yields Al deficient reacted cells surrounded by Al excess zone containing epitaxial islands of “pushed-up” Al in the non-reacted regions even far away from the reaction front.

    3. Sierpin´ski fractal plasmonic nanoantennas (pages 175–177)

      Lorenzo Rosa, Kai Sun and Saulius Juodkazis

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105136

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      Novel types of fractal Sierpinski plasmonic antennas have been fabricated and their optical properties modeled over the visible-to-THz spectral range. The authors report field enhancements spanning a record-broad spectral range with localized high-intensity “hot-spots” where enhancement exceeds a factor of 104. A fractal scaling of self-similar patterns is mirrored in the hot-spots area distribution and is reflected in the enhancement of spectral properties. Applications in sensing, light harvesting, and analytical chemistry are envisaged.

    4. Improvement in the negative bias illumination temperature stress instability of In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistors using an Al2O3 buffer layer (pages 178–180)

      Jeong Hwan Kim, Un Ki Kim, Yoon Jang Chung and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Version of Record online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105090

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      This Letter reports the improvement in the negative bias illumination temperature stress (NBITS) instability of In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistors using an Al2O3 buffer layer. The higher valence band offset (∼0.4 eV) at the Al2O3/In–Ga–Zn–O interface compared to the SiO2/In–Ga–Zn–O interface decreased the gate leakage current and bulk trapping of holes under light illumination. The interfacial trap densities estimated by conductance and off-current measurements were almost identical.

    5. Light confinement in e-beam evaporated thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells (pages 181–183)

      T. Soderstrom, Q. Wang, K. Omaki, O. Kunz, D. Ong and S. Varlamov

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105122

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      E-beam evaporated polycrystalline Si in thin-film solar cells requires light trapping schemes to compensate its moderate light absorption but has limited compatibility with textured glass. The Letter on page 181 ff. shows how texturing the back of the silicon surface with an alkaline wet etching process improves the light absorption and current density up to 26.6 mA/cm2 for an absorber thickness of 3.6 micron deposited at 5 nm/s.

    6. Channel waveguides preserving luminescence features in Nd3+:Y2O3 ceramics produced by ultrafast laser inscription (pages 184–186)

      Ningning Dong, Yicun Yao, Feng Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105166

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      The authors report on Nd3+:Y2O3 laser ceramic channel waveguides produced by ultrafast laser inscription. The micro-photoluminescence mappings on the emitted intensity as well as on the energy shift of the Nd3+ emission line at around 892 nm clearly show that the original fluorescence features of the bulk material have been well preserved in the waveguide region, which suggests the formed microstructures as promising candidates for integrated laser sources.

    7. X-ray detectors based on Fe doped GaN photoconductors (pages 187–189)

      Kai Fu, Guohao Yu, Changsheng Yao, Guo Wang, Min Lu and Guoguang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105163

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      As a wide band gap semiconductor, GaN has significant advantages in the field of high energy radiation detection. The time response of X-ray detectors based on Fe doped GaN photoconductors is reported in this Letter. With a large photocurrent to dark-current ratio of about 180 at 200 V in spite of optical quenching, the photoconductors show excellent potential for application in X-ray imaging.

    8. Effect of oxygen content during sputtering on the electrical properties of bismuth ferrite thin films (pages 190–192)

      Jiagang Wu, John Wang, Dingquan Xiao and Jianguo Zhu

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105129

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      In this Letter, BiFeO3 thin films with a sintering aid of CuO (CuO-BFO) were investigated. Schottky emission is involved in their leakage mechanism regardless of the oxygen content during sputtering. In contrast, the remanent polarization of CuO-BFO thin films is strongly dependent on the oxygen content during sputtering, where a higher remanent polarization of 2Pr ∼ 184.7 µC/cm2 is induced for the thin film with an oxygen content of ∼20% during sputtering.

    9. Optical monitoring of nonequilibrium carrier diffusion in single crystalline CVD and HPHT diamonds under high optical excitation (pages 193–195)

      P. Ščajev, T. Malinauskas, L. Lubys, E. Ivakin, M. Nesladek, K. Haenen and K. Jarašiūnas

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105186

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      A reason for the nearly tenfold decrease of ambipolar diffusion coefficient in highly excited crystalline diamonds was clarified by comparing measurements of the injection- and temperature-dependent diffusivity with theoretical calculations. Room temperature zero-field carrier mobility in the purest diamond samples was found not much larger than 2000 cm2/Vs.

    10. High-pressure high-temperature synthesis and structure of β-MgSiN2 (pages 196–198)

      Miria Andrade, Dmytro Dzivenko, Gerhard Miehe, Reinhard Boehler, Hubertus T. Hintzen and Ralf Riedel

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105189

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      A rhombohedral caswellsilverite-type magnesium silicon nitride (β-MgSiN2) is synthesized for the first time at high pressures and high temperatures using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC). The new phase is characterized by octahedral coordination of cations and metastably persists at ambient conditions.

    11. Detecting efficiency-limiting defects in Czochralski-grown silicon wafers in solar cell production using photoluminescence imaging (pages 199–201)

      Jonas Haunschild, Isolde E. Reis, Juliane Geilker and Stefan Rein

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105183

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      In most cases, high-efficiency solar cells are fabricated from Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) wafers because of the high material quality. However, in several studies solar cells from Cz-Si suffered an absolute efficiency loss of more than 4% due to defects which appear as dark rings in photoluminescence images. In their Letter on page 199 ff. the authors investigate the origin of this defect and how it can be detected using inline tools in production.

    12. Excellent silicon surface passivation with 5 Å thin ALD Al2O3 layers: Influence of different thermal post-deposition treatments (pages 202–204)

      Armin Richter, Jan Benick, Martin Hermle and Stefan W. Glunz

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105188

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      Atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layers are known to provide an excellent passivation of crystalline silicon surfaces. Typically, these passivating layers have a thickness of 5 to 10 nm. In this Letter Richter et al. demonstrate a high quality passivation of low and highly boron-doped silicon surfaces even with four atomic layers (5 Å) of Al2O3. This is achieved by applying a SiNx capping layer and a subsequent treatment with a short high temperature process.

    13. Resistive switching of crossbar memories with carbon nanotube electrodes (pages 205–207)

      Jun Shen, Chaoying Zhang and Qing Chen

      Version of Record online: 11 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105182

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      In this Letter, a carbon nanotube/oxide/metal/crossed carbon nanotube (COMC) structure was first fabricated and demonstrated to be capable of stable bipolar resistive switching. The linewidth of the crossbar is smaller than 20 nm and can be further scaled down by using smaller carbon nanotubes. The reset current is as small as 10 μA, which is of great advantage for low power applications. Electroforming-free planar devices were also fabricated for comparison.

    14. Pressure effect on crystal structure and superconductivity of La0.8Th0.2FeAsO (pages 208–210)

      Ravhi S. Kumar, Daniel Antonio, M. Kanagaraj, S. Arumugam, Andrew L. Cornelius, Stanislav Sinogeikin, J. Prakash, Gohil S. Thakur, A. K. Ganguli, Thomas Hartmann and Yusheng Zhao

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105061

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      In this Letter, the effect of pressure on the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of the thorium doped La1–xThxFeAsO (x = 0.2) superconductor is studied under hydrostatic pressures up to 1.6 GPa by resistivity and magnetization experiments. Application of pressure increases the Tc to 31 K with a positive pressure coefficient of ∼1 K/GPa. X-ray diffraction studies performed at 7.8 K show no pressure-induced structural changes, the tetragonal P4/nmm structure is found to persist up to 31 GPa.

    15. Threshold voltage control by gate electrode in Ga–Sn–Zn–O thin-film transistors for logic inverter application (pages 211–213)

      Hee Sung Lee, Chan Ho Park, Kwang H. Lee, Dong-Ho Kim, Hye-Ri Kim, Gun-Hwan Lee and Seongil Im

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105158

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      The authors have fabricated top-gate Ga–Sn–Zn–O oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) for a logic inverter, which has two serially-connected top-gate TFTs on glass with different gate electrodes: conducting NiOx and Al. Since the electrodes have very different work functions controlling the threshold voltages of TFTs, the inverter demonstrated a high performance at less than 5 V with a high voltage gain of over 25.

    16. Exciton optical transitions in a hexagonal boron nitride single crystal (pages 214–216)

      L. Museur, G. Brasse, A. Pierret, S. Maine, B. Attal-Tretout, F. Ducastelle, A. Loiseau, J. Barjon, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi and A. Kanaev

      Version of Record online: 17 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105190

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      Although hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is one of the most promising materials for developing far UV emitting devices, there is no agreement on its basic intrinsic electronic properties. In this Letter the authors report on band gap and exciton binding energies measurements of single crystalline hBN by combining time- and energy-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy with photoconductivity experiments. They set the band gap energy to 6.4 eV and Frenkel exciton binding energy larger than 380 meV.

  8. Conference calendar

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    3. Issue Information
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    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors
  9. Information for authors

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    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Conference calendar
    10. Information for authors

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