physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 1

January 2012

Volume 6, Issue 1

Pages A1–A15, 1–48

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      Cover Picture: Charge transport in one-dimensional chains of nanoparticles (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 1/2012)

      Leonid V. Govor, Gottfried H. Bauer, Thomas Lüdtke, Rolf J. Haug and Jürgen Parisi

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190030

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      Electron transport through nanoparticle assemblies is a fundamental process to control their physical properties that are determined by coupling and arrangement of individual nanoparticles (NPs), depending on size, shape, and composition. In order to understand the charge transport in one-dimensional arrays of NPs, Govor et al. recently have studied how it takes place through a single NP covered with stabilizer molecules. For this purpose, they prepared a metal–NP–metal configuration where a citrate capped gold particle was located between two Au electrodes. In their Letter on pp. 16–18, Govor et al. now examine the charge transport between two Au electrodes bridged by a one-dimensional chain of NPs (7–10 particles per chain) and show that similar (compared to the one-particle device) conductance fluctuations at constant bias voltage occur. Moreover, they found that the NPs inside the chain are dislocated under the influence of the electric field applied between the Au electrodes. The latter effect gives rise to fluctuations of the differential conductance depending on the bias voltage.

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  3. Back Cover

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      Back Cover: Formation of a honeycomb texture for multicrystalline silicon solar cells using an inkjetted mask (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 1/2012)

      Jan Nievendick, Jan Specht, Martin Zimmer, Lorenz Zahner, William Glover, David Stüwe and Jochen Rentsch

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201190032

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In order to couple more light into solar cells, their surface has to be textured. Usually, multicrystalline solar cells are textured by isotropic acidic etching, resulting in tex-tures with a weighted reflectance between 23% and 30%. However, a lower reflection does not necessarily lead to a higher efficiency because of increased surface roughness. With a honeycomb (HC) structure formed by iso-tropic etching through a mask, the reflectance can be reduced significantly while maintaining a low surface roughness. An industrially applicable approach to create a mask for a HC texture is inkjet printing. In previous publications it was mostly used to open a dielectric layer via inkjet deposition of an etchant. In contrast, Nievendick et al. (pp. 7–9) used a directly printed inkjet mask for HC texturing. Using this method, openings smaller than the droplet size are produced, which make applications for HC texturing possible. In the publication a weighted re-flection of 18.4% was achieved.

  4. Editorials

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      RRL 2012: At the top (pages A3–A4)

      Stefan Hildebrandt

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201250402

  5. Contents

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Editorials
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
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  6. NEW IN pss

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Editorials
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  7. Rapid Research Letters

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    1. Imaging of the interstitial iron concentration in crystalline silicon by measuring the dissociation rate of iron–boron pairs (pages 1–3)

      Sandra Herlufsen, Daniel Macdonald, Karsten Bothe and Jan Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105499

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      Herlufsen et al. present a dynamic approach for measuring the interstitial iron concentration in boron-doped crystalline silicon using camera-based photoluminescence imaging. Only by measuring the time-dependent photoluminescence signal after complete association of all iron–boron pairs in the sample, they are able to determine the spatially resolved information of the interstitial iron concentration without the knowledge of the recombination properties of the interstitial iron or iron–boron pairs.

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      Surface passivation of phosphorus-diffused n+-type emitters by plasma-assisted atomic-layer deposited Al2O3 (pages 4–6)

      B. Hoex, M. C. M. van de Sanden, J. Schmidt, R. Brendel and W. M. M. Kessels

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105445

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      Amorphous aluminium oxide (Al2O3) films yield excellent surface passivation on arbitrary doped p-type and lightly doped n-type c-Si. In some solar cell structures highly p-type and n-type c-Si surfaces are present; hence it is crucial to know the level of surface passivation of Al2O3 on both these surfaces. Here the authors show that Al2O3 can provide a good level of surface passivation for industrially relevant n+-type surfaces.

    3. Formation of a honeycomb texture for multicrystalline silicon solar cells using an inkjetted mask (pages 7–9)

      Jan Nievendick, Jan Specht, Martin Zimmer, Lorenz Zahner, William Glover, David Stüwe and Jochen Rentsch

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105422

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An effective way to reduce the reflection of a multicrystalline solar cell is the use of a honeycomb structure, which can be generated by etching a mask isotropically. In this Letter, a directly printed hexagonal inkjet mask is presented. It results in a honeycomb texture with a weighted reflection of 18.4%.

    4. Real-time analysis of the microstructural evolution and optical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films as a function of Cu content (pages 10–12)

      Vikash Ranjan, R. W. Collins and Sylvain Marsillac

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105385

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      In this Letter the authors report the evolution of the dielectric function of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films with various copper contents, measured by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry. Although all films exhibit a Volmer–Weber nucleation and similar fundamental critical point energies in the analysis of optical properties, Cu-rich films exhibit enhanced coalescence, smoother surfaces, larger grain sizes, as well as a sub-bandgap absorption which is absent in Cu-poor films.

    5. Solution-processible polymer solar cells fabricated on a papery substrate (pages 13–15)

      Tae-Soo Kim, Seok-In Na, Seok-Soon Kim, Byung-Kwan Yu, Jun-Suk Yeo and Dong-Yu Kim

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105440

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      In this Letter, the authors demonstrate solution-processible, cost-effective, and ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) fabricated on a papery substrate, the main layer of which is packed with pulp made from wood. The highly conductive polymer is used for the bottom anode and a planarization layer on the papery substrate. A semi-transparent cathode consisting of Ag/Al multilayer was deposited on the active layer.

    6. Charge transport in one-dimensional chains of nanoparticles (pages 16–18)

      Leonid V. Govor, Gottfried H. Bauer, Thomas Lüdtke, Rolf J. Haug and Jürgen Parisi

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105453

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter the authors have bridged a pair of gold electrodes with a one-dimensional chain of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles. The resulting devices exhibit current fluctuations at a constant bias voltage in the range 3–100 mHz as a consequence of conformational changes in the citrate molecules. The fluctuations of the differential conductance as a function of bias voltage derive from a coupling between mechanical motion of citrate molecules and electron transport.

    7. RF transmission properties of graphene monolayers with width variation (pages 19–21)

      Hee-Jo Lee, Eunho Kim, Won-Jun Lee and Jongwan Jung

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105378

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      In this Letter radio-frequency characteristics of graphene monolayers with width variation are experimentally investigated and the distributed elements for each width using a transmission line model are extracted from the measured scattering parameters, i.e. S11 and S21. We thus confirm that the radio-frequency characteristics for graphene monolayers are considerably dependent on resistance, capacitance, and inductance component in the microwave region.

    8. In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of trimethyl aluminum and water half-cycle treatments on HF-treated and O3-oxidized GaN substrates (pages 22–24)

      Prasanna Sivasubramani, Tae Joo Park, Brian E. Coss, Antonio Lucero, Jie Huang, Barry Brennan, Yu Cao, Debdeep Jena, Huili (Grace) Xing, Robert M. Wallace and Jiyoung Kim

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105417

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      In this Letter an in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of half-cycle treatments of a trimethyl aluminum/water atomic layer deposition (ALD) process on both HF-cleaned and O3 oxidized GaN surfaces is reported. No significant re-growth of Ga–O–N or self-cleaning of surface oxide during ALD is indicated unlike on GaAs or InGaAs substrates.

    9. Thermal etching process of microscale pits on the GaAs(001) surface (pages 25–27)

      Shibin Li, Jiang Wu, Zhiming Wang, Zhenhua Li, Yuanjie Su, Zhiming Wu, Yadong Jiang and Gregory J. Salamo

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105482

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, Shibin Li et al. demonstrate that microscale size pits can be obtained on a GaAs (001) surface by just heating the GaAs substrate in vacuum SEM chamber. The microscale pits are produced due to the thermal etching process. This work provides a new method to fabricate self-assembled microscale pits on a GaAs surface.

    10. Synthesis of high-aspect-ratio, top-open and ultraflat-surface TiO2 nanotubes through double-layered configuration (pages 28–30)

      Jia Lin and Xianfeng Chen

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105461

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      In this Letter a simple and effective technique is introduced to eliminate surface disorder during the synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes. A voltage interruption during anodization leads to the formation of a double-layered structure. By combining this layer separation and ultrasonication, high-aspect-ratio nanotubes with well-defined openings and an ultraflat surface can be obtained. The ability to fabricate these films with controlled tubular morphology is an essential step towards exploitation of extended applications.

    11. Visible emission from ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum wells (pages 31–33)

      Martin Lange, Christof P. Dietrich, Kerstin Brachwitz, Marko Stölzel, Michael Lorenz and Marius Grundmann

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105489

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter ZnCdO quantum wells emitting in the visible spectral range are reported. The quantum well thickness was varied in order to tune the emission energy from the green to the violet spectral range. To obtain such low emission energies a large Cd content of 0.25 was achieved. With these results the authors are able to show that ZnCdO is a competitive alternative to InGaN for device applications.

    12. Gallium and indium co-doped ZnO thin films for white light emitting diodes (pages 34–36)

      Saraswathi Chirakkara and S. B. Krupanidhi

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105455

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel co-doping method for white light emission from ZnO without using phosphors is presented which offers an inexpensive fabrication technology, high quality and low turn-on voltage. The photoluminescence of Ga and In co-doped ZnO (GIZO) showed a white light emission with CIE coordinates (0.31, 0.33) and a correlated colour temperature of 6650 K. The IV characteristics and photoluminescence measurements prove that GIZO is a potential candidate for the fabrication of white light emitting diodes.

    13. Biaxial stress-induced giant bandgap shift in BiFeO3 epitaxial films (pages 37–39)

      Z. Fu, Z. G. Yin, N. F. Chen, X. W. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. M. Bai and J. L. Wu

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105500

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      This Letter reports on the strong bandgap dependence of BiFeO3 on biaxial stress. By epitaxially growing BiFeO3 films with 15% Bi excess on SrTiO3 substrates, a rather large lattice mismatch (∼ 3.7%) and therefore a controllable biaxial compressive stress up to 10.8 GPa were obtained. The bandgap was found to be linearly decreased with compressive stress by 67 meV/GPa and a red-shift as large as 0.7 eV was observed.

    14. Giant dielectric constant observed in Ba0.96Sr0.04Zrx Y0.005Ti0.995–xO3–δ ceramics (pages 40–42)

      X. S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, J. Li, Z. F. Li and P. Yu

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105454

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      In this Letter the authors report a novel material with a colossal dielectric constant. A giant dielectric constant εr ∼105 over a moderately wide temperature and frequency range was observed in Ba0.96Sr0.04Zr0.04Y0.005Ti0.955O3–δ ceramics. To obtain such a high dielectric constant, the co-substitution of Zr and Y on B sites of BaTiO3 was achieved, and the Sr doping on A sites induced the co-substitution.

    15. Nonlinear Tamm states in layered metal–dielectric metamaterials (pages 43–45)

      Ivan Iorsh, Ilya V. Shadrivov, Pavel A. Belov and Yuri S. Kivshar

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105446

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Iorsh et al. studied nonlinear plasmonic Tamm states in semi-infinite nanostructured metal–dielectric metamaterials with a nonlinear surface layer. The image shows a numerical simulation of the surface state at the interface of metal–dielectric metamaterial and vacuum. The authors demonstrate that the formed transverse-electric (TE) polarized surface modes have a sub-wavelength localization near the surface, and these modes can exist even in the cases when linear surface modes are absent, provided the power exceeds a certain threshold.

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      Double-shell metamaterial coatings for plasmonic cloaking (pages 46–48)

      Dmitry S. Filonov, Alexey P. Slobozhanyuk, Pavel A. Belov and Yuri S. Kivshar

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201105475

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A cloak for both hiding objects and shielding their interiors is studied. The structure consisting of a dielectric layer and a layer of an epsilon-near-zero material can suppress substantially the scattering from a sphere and at the same time produce zero electric field inside. The double-layer coating allows to cloak different objects with various material and geometrical parameters, but with the dimensions less or comparable with the radiation wavelength.

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    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Editorials
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content

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