physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 10

Special Issue: Focus on Semiconductor Nanowires

October 2013

Volume 7, Issue 10

Pages 683–925

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Preface
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: III–V nanowire photovoltaics: Review of design for high efficiency (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10/2013)

      R. R. LaPierre, A. C. E. Chia, S. J. Gibson, C. M. Haapamaki, J. Boulanger, R. Yee, P. Kuyanov, J. Zhang, N. Tajik, N. Jewell and K. M. A. Rahman

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370457

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      High efficiency III–V nanowire solar cell: III–V nanowire-based photovoltaics (PV) are a promising replacement for thin-film solar cells, offering the potential for less material utilization, excellent anti-reflection properties, lattice-mismatched growth on silicon, and high power conversion efficiency. In the Review@RRL article by LaPierre et al. (pp. 815–830), the status of nanowire PV is summarized including issues related to nanowire growth, control of nanowire growth direction, crystal structure, optical absorption, carrier collection, strain accommodation, tunnel junctions, Ohmic contact formation, passivation and doping. Performance data of III–V nanowire cells and the primary challenges in nanowire PV are summarized.

  2. Back Cover

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      Back Cover: Structural and optical properties of Alx Ga1–xN nanowires (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 10/2013)

      A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, M. den Hertog, B. Gayral, M. Kociak, H. Renevier and B. Daudin

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370458

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      Localization engineering of AlGaN nanowires: The issue of the inhomogeneity of III-nitride alloys is closely related to the potential of these materials for light emitting devices in a wide energy window. In two-dimensional layers, alloy composition fluctuations have been often correlated to structural defects. However, nitride nanowires provide an option to study these properties unbiased by the presence of extended defects. The results reported by Pierret et al. (pp. 868–873) suggest that kinetical effects are governing the growth mechanism of AlxGa1–xN nanowires with high Al content, leading to the formation of nanometric composition fluctuations. It is concluded that the carrier localization effects observed in these nanowires can be partly controlled by the growth parameters, leading to a wide range of localization potential values, opening the way to localization engineering and to enhanced room-temperature light emission in the UV range.

  3. Issue Information

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Preface
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  4. Preface

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    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Preface
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Focus on Semiconductor Nanowires (pages 683–684)

      Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar and Silvija Gradečak

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370460

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Preface
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. NEW IN pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Preface
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  7. Review@RRL

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    1. Self-induced growth of GaN nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy: A critical review of the formation mechanisms (pages 699–712)

      V. Consonni

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307237

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      The self-induced approach is a valuable growth mode to form GaN nanowires on a wide number of substrates for optoelectronic devices. However, their nucleation and growth processes should be distinguished from the usual growth modes in chemical and physical vapor deposition. This article provides a comprehensive review of the formation mechanisms of GaN nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy, leading to a general understanding of the self-induced growth.

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      Advances in semiconductor nanowire growth on graphene (pages 713–726)

      A. Mazid Munshi and Helge Weman

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308010

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Epitaxial growth of semiconductor nanowires on graphene is an emerging research field for the development of next-generation flexible electronic and optoelectronic hybrid devices. This article reviews the recent developments in the growth of various semiconductor nanowires and the device applications of the nanowire/graphene hybrid systems.

    3. Vibrational properties of semiconductor nanowires and nanowire heterostructures: ensembles and single nanowires (pages 727–738)

      Ana Cros

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308015

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Semiconductor nanowires present intriguing new vibrational phenomena related to their elongated shape, phonon mode confinement and electron phonon coupling. The interest of these properties, together with the large amount of material data that can be accessed through the analysis of phonon modes, place Raman spectroscopy as a necessary tool for the characterization of these nanostructures. This review gives a brief snapshot of the state-of-the-art in Raman spectroscopy and imaging of nanowire ensembles and individual nanowires.

    4. First principles studies of structural, electrical and magnetic properties of semiconductor nanowires (pages 739–753)

      Marta Galicka, Ryszard Buczko, Perla Kacman, Erika N. Lima, Tome M. Schmidt and Hadas Shtrikman

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307234

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The properties of various III–V and IV–VI nanowires are studied using simple ab initio methods. The impact of crystal structure, lateral surfaces, passivation of the dangling bonds and quantum confinement on the stability of the nanowires is discussed. III–V and IV–VI nanowires doped with various, in particular magnetic, ions are also discussed. The influence of the crystal structure of the wire on the segregation and formation energies of different dopants and thus on the electric and magnetic properties of the nanowires is shown.

    5. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires: From fundamentals to phononic engineering (pages 754–766)

      Gang Zhang and Yong-Wei Zhang

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307188

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires can be altered by introducing different phonon scattering mechanisms. These scattering mechanisms manifest themselves as the dominant ones only in a certain range of frequency regimes. The study to control and modify the phonon thermal conductivity of nanowires via manipulating their internal structure, composition and defects is referred by the authors as “phononic engineering”. Phononic engineering will provide an efficient and practically useful tool for controlling the thermal conductivity of nanomaterials.

    6. Thermoelectricity in semiconductor nanowires (pages 767–780)

      Jungwon Kim, Je-Hyeong Bahk, Junphil Hwang, Hoon Kim, Hwanjoo Park and Woochul Kim

      Version of Record online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307239

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Kim et al. provide a comprehensive review on recent advances in the development of semiconductor nanowires for thermoelectric energy conversion. The size effects in semiconducting nanowires are discussed as a means to enhance the thermoelectric properties of the nanowires over their bulk counterparts. Finally, the authors mention briefly the recent efforts to fabricate thermoelectric devices using nanowire arrays. The figure shows the milestones of reported thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, as a function of reported year.

    7. Nanofunctional gallium oxide (Ga2O3) nanowires/nanostructures and their applications in nanodevices (pages 781–792)

      Sudheer Kumar and R. Singh

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307253

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Semiconducting oxide (Ga2O3) nanowires have a large surface-to-volume ratio as their counterpart bulk material, which is very useful for various nanodevice applications. The progress in the area of Ga2O3 nanowires has been remarkable during the last ten years. In this review, the synthesis of Ga2O3 nanowires, their properties, the current status of this important semiconducting oxide material, and challenges to fabricate real nanodevices with the corresponding solutions and future opportunities are presented.

    8. Silicon nanowires – a versatile technology platform (pages 793–799)

      Thomas Mikolajick, André Heinzig, Jens Trommer, Sebastian Pregl, Matthias Grube, Gianaurelio Cuniberti and Walter M. Weber

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307247

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Based on their inherent small diameter, silicon nanowires offer unique properties that enable electron devices, sensors as well as solar cells and lithium batteries with the potential to significantly outperform their thin film or bulk counterparts. This article gives an overview of important device applications of silicon nanowires. Starting with nanowire fabrication, the different device concepts are introduced and their most important features reviewed. Special focus is put on different reconfigurable transistor concepts recently described in literature.

    9. Group III nitride core–shell nano- and microrods for optoelectronic applications (pages 800–814)

      Martin Mandl, Xue Wang, Tilman Schimpke, Christopher Kölper, Michael Binder, Johannes Ledig, Andreas Waag, Xiang Kong, Achim Trampert, Frank Bertram, Jürgen Christen, Francesca Barbagini, Enrique Calleja and Martin Strassburg

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307250

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Nano- and microrods with the active region wrapped around the 3D-core as a shell layer have the potential to be a disruptive technology for solid state lighting. This article reviews the recent work on III-nitride based core-shell nano- and microrods grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. The most common growth approaches are discussed along with their implications on device processing. The basic device requirements are outlined as well as first examples of LED devices using these 3D structures as active elements are presented.

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      III–V nanowire photovoltaics: Review of design for high efficiency (pages 815–830)

      R. R. LaPierre, A. C. E. Chia, S. J. Gibson, C. M. Haapamaki, J. Boulanger, R. Yee, P. Kuyanov, J. Zhang, N. Tajik, N. Jewell and K. M. A. Rahman

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307109

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      To overcome the limitations of current III–V multi-junction solar photovoltaic (PV) cells, III–V nanowire-based PV is being aggressively pursued by numerous groups. This article provides a comprehensive review of nanowire-based PV covering all aspects of design for high power conversion efficiency including nanowire growth methods, growth direction, crystal structure, optical absorption, carrier collection, strain accommodation, tunnel junctions, Ohmic contact formation, passivation and doping.

  8. Rapid Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Preface
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Information for authors
    1. Growth

      Influence of surface roughness on Ge nanowire growth by MBE (pages 831–834)

      Roman Bansen, Jan Schmidtbauer, Uta Juda, Toni Markurt, Thomas Teubner, Robert Heimburger and Torsten Boeck

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307248

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Substantial variations in Ge nanowire growth by MBE are found, although nominally identical substrates were used. To investigate this, wafers polished with different polishing cloths are studied. Differences in surface roughness are found, which influence the nucleation of catalyst droplets. It is shown that even minor surface irregularities from chemical-mechanical polishing on otherwise atomically flat substrates can have a paramount influence on the nanowire growth.

    2. A RHEED investigation of self-assembled GaN nanowire nucleation dynamics on bare Si and on Si covered with a thin AlN buffer layer (pages 835–839)

      Karine Hestroffer and Bruno Daudin

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307255

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      By measuring the appearance of diffraction spots in the RHEED pattern, the nucleation time of GaN nanowires on Si(111) covered (or not) with an AlN thin buffer layer has been monitored. Consistent with a standard nucleation model, this nucleation time depends on the Ga adatom density on the substrate, which depends itself on Ga flux and/or substrate temperature.

    3. Si substrate preparation for the VS and VLS growth of InAs nanowires (pages 840–844)

      Torsten Rieger, Detlev Grützmacher and Mihail Ion Lepsa

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307229

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The authors report on simple ways to prepare Si(111) substrates for the growth of both droplet-free and In droplet-assisted InAs nanowires. Essential aspects of the growth of self-catalyzed InAs nanowires on GaAs(111) B are used to transfer the process on Si(111). Their findings are important for the integration of potential nanowire electronic devices on the cost-effective Si platform.

    4. Study of radial growth in patterned self-catalyzed GaAs nanowire arrays by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (pages 845–849)

      Sandra Gibson and Ray LaPierre

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307142

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Periodic arrays of self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires are grown by gas-source MBE on nano-patterned oxidized Si substrates. The average nanowire length and diameter increase significantly with both time and increasing inter-wire spacing as revealed by growth of different duration under identical conditions. A mechanism for the radial and axial growth is proposed in this Letter, which accounts for the observed dependence on the pattern parameters.

    5. Cu particle seeded InP–InAs axial nanowire heterostructures (pages 850–854)

      Karla Hillerich, Dario S. Ghidini, Kimberly A. Dick, Knut Deppert and Jonas Johansson

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307241

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      In this Letter, the authors demonstrate for the first time the epitaxial growth of alternating InP-InAs nanowire heterostructures using Cu seed particles. The use of seed particle materials alternative to gold, which is the most common material for III/V nanowires, may lead to new and unexpected growth features. In the case of this investigation, 3D nucleation and extended segments of the 4H polytype are observed.

    6. Microstructure

      Zincblende-to-wurtzite interface improvement by group III loading in Au-seeded GaAs nanowires (pages 855–859)

      Daniel Jacobsson, Sebastian Lehmann and Kimberly A. Dick

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307251

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      By doing ex situ TEM/EDX measurements on the seed particle after Au-seeded growth of GaAs wurtzite and zincblende nanowires, it was found that Ga rich conditions are required for growth of WZ GaAs. Based on this observation, the authors propose and demonstrate a growth procedure to improve the crystal structure quality of the zincblende-to-wurtzite transition in GaAs nanowire heterostructures.

    7. Distribution of zinc-blende twins and wurtzite segments in GaAs nanowires probed by X-ray nanodiffraction (pages 860–863)

      Andreas Biermanns, Dina Carbone, Steffen Breuer, Vincent L. R. Jacques, Tobias Schulli, Lutz Geelhaar and Ullrich Pietsch

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307246

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      To study and compare a large number of nanowires is challenging but frequently desired in order to determine the structural fluctuations caused by the random nature of the growth process. Biermanns et al. have used a novel diffraction scheme employing a nanofocussed X-ray beam to study a large ensemble of GaAs nanowires grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy and determine their individual structural composition.

    8. Radial composition of single InGaN nanowires: a combined study by EDX, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (pages 864–867)

      M. Gómez-Gómez, N. Garro, J. Segura-Ruiz, G. Martínez-Criado, M. H. Chu, A. Cantarero, C. Denker, J. Malindretos and A. Rizzi

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307244

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      In this Letter, the authors show that in order to fully determine the radial alloy distribution of InxGa1–xN nanowires more than one spectroscopical technique with spatial resolution at the nanoscale are required. The combination of three techniques provides evidences of the spontaneous formation of a core–shell structure with a potential absorption profile matching most of the solar spectrum.

    9. Spectroscopic investigations

      Structural and optical properties of Alx Ga1–xN nanowires (pages 868–873)

      A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, M. den Hertog, B. Gayral, M. Kociak, H. Renevier and B. Daudin

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308009

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      AlxGa1-x nanowires exhibit a remarkable compositional variability, associated with the statistical incorporation of Al and Ga species. Although such alloy composition fluctuations are also observed in two-dimensional layers, and usually assigned to the presence of extended defects, the situation is drastically different in the case of defect-free nanowires, emphasizing the dominant role of kinetics. Nanocathodoluminescence mapping of single nanowires has revealed the presence of sharp emission lines, as an evidence of localization effects assigned to composition fluctuations, leading to a quantum dot-like behaviour.

    10. Built-in elastic strain and localization effects on GaAs luminescence of MOVPE-grown GaAs–AlGaAs core–shell nanowires (pages 874–877)

      Paola Prete, Ilio Miccoli, Fabio Marzo and Nico Lovergine

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308046

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The core photoluminescence emission of MOVPE-grown GaAs–AlGaAs core–shell nanowires is studied as function of the relevant geometrical parameters of these nanostructures. The energy of the nanowire dominant excitonic peak is compared with theoretical calculations based on an elastic energy equilibrium model. This allowed evaluating the contribution of elastic strain and possible localization effects to the redshift of exciton emission with AlGaAs shell thickness.

    11. Quantum efficiency of InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures grown on silicon substrates (pages 878–881)

      Roman Anufriev, Nicolas Chauvin, Hammadi Khmissi, Khalid Naji, Gilles Patriarche, Michel Gendry and Catherine Bru-Chevallier

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307242

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The quantum efficiency of InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures grown on silicon, such as quantum rod and quantum well nanowires, is studied as a function of excitation power. The experimental results are compared to that measured on analogues InAs(P)/InP planar heterostructures (quantum dashes and quantum well). From the obtained results we conclude about possible ways to improve the quantum efficiency of the nanowire heterostructures which can serve for the fabrication of high-efficiency light emitting devices working in telecommunication window.

    12. Doping and impurities

      Interface defects and impurities at the growth zone of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowire from first principles (pages 882–885)

      Sung Sakong, Yaojun A. Du and Peter Kratzer

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307210

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The energetics of defects and impurities at the interfaces of a Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowire can demonstrate the stability of the ideal atomic models. Based on the energetics, the interface defects and impurities are compared to their bulk species. This comparison provides the basic understandings of nanowire growth and material supply toward the interface.

    13. Intense intra-3d luminescence and waveguide properties of single Co-doped ZnO nanowires (pages 886–889)

      Sebastian Geburt, Robert Röder, Uwe Kaiser, Limei Chen, Manh-Hung Chu, Jaime Segura-Ruiz, Gema Martínez-Criado, Wolfram Heimbrodt and Carsten Ronning

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307230

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      Semiconductor nanowires can be successfully doped with cobalt ions using ion implantation. These luminescence centres are activated after thermal annealing and show strong light emission with desired wavelength, which is also wave guided along the nanowire. Such material systems open new possibilities for future optoelectronic nano-devices such as light-emitting diodes or nano-lasers.

    14. Electrical transport in C-doped GaAs nanowires: surface effects (pages 890–893)

      Alberto Casadei, Jil Schwender, Eleonora Russo-Averchi, Daniel Rüffer, Martin Heiss, Esther Alarcó-Lladó, Fauzia Jabeen, Mohammad Ramezani, Kornelius Nielsch and Anna Fontcuberta i Morral

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307162

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The resistivity and mobility of carbon-doped GaAs nanowires are studied for different doping concentrations. Surface effects have been evaluated by comparing unpassivated with passivated nanowires. At low doping concentrations the highest mobility is observed for unpassivated nanowires, while at higher doping concentrations the passivated nanowires offer the best characteristics. Electron beam induced current measurements show that the minority carrier diffusion path can be as high as 190 nm for passivated nanowires.

    15. Properties and tailoring of the ubiquitous core–shell p–n junction in semiconductor nanowires by δ-doping (pages 894–897)

      Matthew Zervos

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307139

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The aim of this work is to describe the properties of the core–shell p–n junction in semiconductor nanowires and explain the difficulty in obtaining a flat band condition at the surface and simultaneous confinement of electrons and holes in the n- and p-type segments, which is necessary for optimum device performance and may be overcome by δ-doping which allows one to tailor the charge distribution and potential profile.

    16. Transport

      Magnetotransport and thermopower of single Bi0.92Sb0.08 nanowires (pages 898–902)

      Sonja Heiderich, William Toellner, Tim Boehnert, Jan Goeran Gluschke, Sebastian Zastrow, Christian Schumacher, Eckhard Pippel and Kornelius Nielsch

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308004

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The focus of this Letter is the electrical characterization of electrodeposited single Bi0.92Sb0.08 nanowires using alumina oxide membranes as templates. Resolution of the membranes afterwards and a suitable process for contacting single nanowires exhibit the possibility to maintain the absolute values of numerous transport measurements. The temperature dependent resistance, magnetoresistance and Seebeck coefficient of single Bi0.92Sb0.08 nanowires with a diameter between 220–350 nm is presented. Additionally the influence of an annealing process on the transport properties is investigated. It turns out that the transport properties of annealed Bi0.92Sb0.08 wires become more predictable compared to as-prepared wires.

    17. Atomistic simulation of phonon and alloy limited hole mobility in Si1–xGex nanowires (pages 903–906)

      Saumitra Mehrotra, Pengyu Long, Michael Povolotskyi and Gerhard Klimeck

      Version of Record online: 14 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307124

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      SiGe is an important material for high mobility p-type transistors. In this Letter, the role of alloy and phonon scattering on the total hole mobility in SiGe nanowires is studied. At low carrier density, alloy scattering is still found to be relevant leading to an ‘U’ shaped mobility curve as a function of Ge concentration.

    18. On the single-particle-reduced entropy of a gated nanowire system in the Coulomb blockade regime (pages 907–910)

      José María Castelo, Klaus Michael Indlekofer and Joerg Malindretos

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307235

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      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      A novel aspect in the numerical study of non-equilibrium transport in nanowire FETs is contained in the analysis of the single-particle-reduced entropy for several channel states. This quantity provides statistical information about the degree of mixture and correlation of the electronic states. It allows for a deeper insight into the underlying physics, beyond the current-voltage characteristics of the device.

    19. Applications

      Electronic comparison of InAs wurtzite and zincblende phases using nanowire transistors (pages 911–914)

      A. R. Ullah, H. J. Joyce, A. M. Burke, J. Wong-Leung, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish and A. P. Micolich

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308014

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      The authors report the study of nanowire transistors made using phase-pure wurtzite and zincblende InAs nanowires grown from identical catalyst particles. The figure shows the peak field-effect mobility versus temperature for these devices, with a 2-4 times higher peak mobility for the wurtzite nanowires compared to the zincblende nanowires.

    20. Equivalent circuit model of a nanogenerator based on a piezoelectric nanowire–polymer composite (pages 915–918)

      Olivier Graton, Guylaine Poulin-Vittrant, Abhishek Singh Dahiya, Nicolas Camara, Louis-Pascal Tran Huu Hue and Marc Lethiecq

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308017

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      A vertically integrated nanogenerator (VING) is an energy harvesting device made up of arrays of piezoelectric and semiconducting nanowires grown orthogonally to a substrate and entangled in a polymer matrix that convert mechanical energy into electricity. An equivalent circuit model of VING is established. It can be a valuable tool for the identification of the parameters that most influence its performance and for the optimisation of its design.

    21. High aspect ratio semiconducting nanostructure random networks: highly versatile materials for multiple applications (pages 919–923)

      Céline Ternon, Pauline Serre, Germain Rey, Claire Holtzinger, Priyanka Periwal, Mickaël Martin, Thierry Baron, Valérie Stambouli and Michel Langlet

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308047

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Part of Focus Issue on “Semiconductor Nanowires” (Eds.: Chennupati Jagadish, Lutz Geelhaar, Silvija Gradecak)

      In this Letter, 2D random networks composed of semiconducting nanowires (NW) are fabricated using a simple and versatile fabrication method. Considering the observed properties, including the electrical behaviour, the precise control over NW density in the network, the enhanced specific area, and the possibility to use any type of NWs, such 2D random networks are particularly well designed for integration into innovative light-, bio- or gas-sensing devices with an improved sensitivity.

  9. Information for authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Preface
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. Rapid Research Letters
    10. Information for authors
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