physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

December 2013

Volume 7, Issue 12

Pages 1033–1114

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      Cover Picture: Strained graphene as a local probe for plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering by gold nanostructures (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12/2013)

      Sebastian Heeg, Antonios Oikonomou, Roberto Fernandez Garcia, Stefan A. Maier, Aravind Vijayaraghavan and Stephanie Reich

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370470

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      In their Letter on pp. 1067–1070, Heeg et al. establish the general use of strained graphene as a local probe for plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The cover picture shows a sheet of graphene covering gold nanoantennas. Laser beams probe the Raman signal of graphene subject to enhanced light fields originating from the antenna cavities and next to them. The structures induce strain in the graphene layer. Strain shifts the phonon frequencies of graphene. As a result, vibrations at the plasmonic hotspot in the cavities differ in energy from vibrations in other areas and serve as a local probe. The authors report shifts of up to 85 cm–1 of the 2D Raman mode of graphene for plasmonic structures of varying size, geometry and composition. Excitation energy dependent and spatial Raman mapping show that enhanced Raman signals exclusively arise from strained graphene. The shifted vibrations represent the equivalent of a spatial resolution smaller than the wavelength of the excitation; they allow to study the interplay of external pertubations like doping, electric- and magnetic fields and enhanced light fields in graphene.

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      Back Cover: Spin textures of strongly correlated spin Hall quantum dots (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12/2013)

      Giacomo Dolcetto, Niccolò Traverso Ziani, Matteo Biggio, Fabio Cavaliere and Maura Sassetti

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370471

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      When quantum confinement is applied to topological phases of matter, very interesting physics can emerge. Majorana fermions at the boundaries of topological superconductors are the most striking example. Another interesting system is a quantum dot defined into the edges of two-dimensional topological insulators. These edges represent a new state of matter, the helical Luttinger liquid, characterized by spin-momentum locking. In their work, Dolcetto et al. inspect the spin resolved charge density and the spin resolved density–density correlation functions of such quantum dots (see the Letter on pp. 1059–1063). The interplay between helicity and quantum confinement induced by magnetic barriers leads to strong oscillations in the spin resolved density even when Coulomb interaction is weak. The main finding is that when Coulomb interaction is strong, a peculiar spin texture emerges as signalled by the spin-resolved correlation functions. This crystal of spins is the counterpart of the charge Wigner crystal occurring in ordinary one-dimensional quantum dots.

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      Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12/2013

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370472

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      Contents: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12/2013 (pages 1033–1038)

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370473

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  6. rrl solar

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    1. Dislocation mapping

      Rapid dislocation-density mapping of as-cut crystalline silicon wafers (pages 1041–1044)

      David Berney Needleman, Hyunjoo Choi1, Douglas M. Powell1 and Tonio Buonassisi

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308150

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      Needleman et al. outline and validate a low-cost approach for dislocation-density quantification in silicon, involving a high-resolution commercial dark-field imaging device, a flatbed scanner. This method requires minimal surface preparation and can be performed on as-cut 15.6 × 15.6 cm2 wafers in less than five minutes.

    2. Light trapping

      Analysis of absorption enhancement in tailor-made periodic polycrystalline silicon microarrays (pages 1045–1049)

      Veit Preidel, Daniel Lockau, Tobias Sontheimer, Franziska Back, Eveline Rudigier-Voigt, Bernd Rech and Christiane Becker

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308098

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      Three-dimensional photonic crystalline silicon microarchitectures on periodically nanoimprint-patterned glass substrates are designed for an application as broadband absorbers in polycrystalline Si thin-film solar cells. A high angular acceptance and a calculated maximum achievable short-circuit current density of 27.6 mA/cm2 for an effective Si thickness of only 1.1 µm highlight the optical potential of these structures.

    3. Kesterite nanoparticles

      Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) assisted single-step synthesis of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles by solvothermal process (pages 1050–1054)

      Sawanta S. Mali, Hyungjin Kim, Chang Su Shim, Pramod S. Patil and Chang Kook Hong

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308132

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      Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles were prepared by a solvothermal process using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethylene glycol (EG) solvent at 180 °C from metal chloride precursors. After nitrogen annealing at 450 °C the sample shows single-phase kesterite CZTS with good crystallinity.

    4. Organic photovoltaics

      Insertion of fullerene layer for bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell fabricated by electrospray deposition method (pages 1055–1058)

      Takeshi Fukuda, Kenji Takagi and Yingjie Liao

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308167

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      This Letter presents a novel fabrication process for multilayer organic photovoltaic cells using the temperature-controlled electrospray deposition method. A device shows high photoconversion efficiency of 1.94% by adding [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester between the active layer and a metal electrode.

  7. Rapid Research Letters

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    1. Spin ordering

      Spin textures of strongly correlated spin Hall quantum dots (pages 1059–1063)

      Giacomo Dolcetto, Niccolò Traverso Ziani, Matteo Biggio, Fabio Cavaliere and Maura Sassetti

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308064

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In quantum dots defined via magnetic barriers in a quantum spin Hall edge, peculiar spin patterns develop, which are stabilized by electron interactions.

    2. Graphene membranes

      Polymer-free, low tension graphene mechanical resonators (pages 1064–1066)

      Benjamín Alemán, Michael Rousseas, Yisheng Yang, Will Regan, Michael Crommie, Feng Wang and Alex Zettl

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201300087

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      Ultra-thin, lightweight and mechanically robust graphene membranes can be suspended drumhead-style over rigid frames to create high frequency mechanical resonators useful in opto-electronic devices. The key to high quality graphene resonators is clean membranes with controlled tension, both of which are provided for in the present fabrication process.

    3. Plasmonics

      Strained graphene as a local probe for plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering by gold nanostructures (pages 1067–1070)

      Sebastian Heeg, Antonios Oikonomou, Roberto Fernandez Garcia, Stefan A. Maier, Aravind Vijayaraghavan and Stephanie Reich

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308145

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, the authors establish the general use of strained graphene as local probes for plasmonic nanostructures (and vice versa) as seen by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Structures with plasmonic cavities, where enhanced light fields are compressed into sub-wavelength volumes, are particular suitable to be characterized by this approach. A resolution well below the diffraction limit is achieved.

    4. Transparent electrodes

      Silver microgrid transparent conductive electrode based on bulk plasmon effect for ultraviolet wavelength application (pages 1071–1075)

      Jun Shang, Hongfei Qi, Haifeng Feng, Liang Wang, Junying Zhang, Yigang Wang, Weichang Hao and Tianmin Wang

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308094

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      Silver microgrid/TiO2/ITO(indium tin oxide glass) sandwich-structure photodetectors with Ohmic contacts have been fabricated. The silver microgrid broadens the transmission spectrum and greatly enhances the intensity of the plasmon peak. The high UV transmittance results from an enhanced bulk plasmon effect of the silver microgrid electrode. The silver microgrid transparent conductive electrode based on the bulk plasmon effect opens the way for ultraviolet wavelength application.

    5. Graphene coatings

      Chemical vapor deposition of graphene on silver foil as a tarnish-resistant coating (pages 1076–1079)

      Muhammed Emre Ayhan, Golap Kalita, Subash Sharma and Masaki Tanemura

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308159

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      The authors demonstrate the synthesis of a continuous few-layer graphene film on Ag foil by an atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Tarnishing of the Ag surface in presence of sulfur vapor was investigated with and without the graphene coating. It was found that the bare Ag surface immediately reacts with sulfur vapor to turn black, while the graphene-coated Ag surface is preserved. It is shown that graphene film can be effectively synthesized on Ag substrate as a tarnish-resistant coating.

    6. Nanocarbon field emitters

      Highly transparent and flexible field electron emitters based on hybrid carbon nanostructure (pages 1080–1083)

      Debasish Ghosh, Pradip Ghosh, Takuto Noda, Yasuhiko Hayashi and Masaki Tanemura

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308169

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      Highly transparent and flexible field electron emitters were prepared by spray coating of 1,2-dichloroethane dispersed single wall carbon nanotubes onto neon ion irradiation induced conical nanocarbon structures on nafion substrates. These hybrid carbon nanostructures might have huge prospects for the fabrication of next-generation portable display devices.

    7. Organic semiconductors

      Impact of molecular tilt angle on the absorption spectra of pentacene:perfluoropentacene blends (pages 1084–1088)

      K. Broch, C. Bürker, J. Dieterle, S. Krause, A. Gerlach and F. Schreiber

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308085

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      The impact of the molecular tilt angle on the absorption spectra of the prototypical donor-acceptor complex pentacene:perfluoropentacene is investigated at different substrate temperatures combining near-edge X-ray fine-structure spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. With decreasing substrate temperature the number of molecules in lying down orientation (λ-orientation) is increasing, resulting in pronounced changes in the peak intensity in ε2(E).

    8. Hybrid photonics

      Energy transfer induced enhancement of localized exciton emission in ZnO nanoparticle–anthracene hybrid films (pages 1089–1092)

      Kyle Main, Ryoko Shimada, Yasuhisa Fujita and Arup Neogi

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308114

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      Main et al. have observed enhanced photoluminescence emission from localized Frenkel excitons in ZnO particle–anthracene hybrid films due to resonant energy transfer from the ZnO band-edge excitons to the S1 states in anthracene. By embedding these materials into a polyphenylsiloxane glass matrix, the authors ensure a small average donor–acceptor distance and therefore high energy transfer efficiency (exceeding 90%). The enhancement strongly depends on the anthracene concentration. The transfer is most efficient for higher anthracene concentration due to reduced average donor–acceptor spacing.

    9. Flexible electronics

      Organic thin-film transistor fabricated between flexible films by thermal lamination (pages 1093–1096)

      M. Sakai, T. Okamoto, Y. Yamazaki, J. Hayashi, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kuniyoshi, H. Yamauchi, Y. Sadamitsu, M. Hamada and K. Kudo

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308118

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      In the future, flexible sheet electronics could be fabricated using a toner-based method, such as Xerox or laser printing, followed by a lamination.The lamination process is a solvent-free, material-saving, and low-temperature process for flexible card or sheet electronics. The results of the present research phase, using a desktop laminator, will soon be expandable to large-scale and high-throughput industrial manufacturing processes.

    10. Ion battery materials

      Na-site energy of P2-type NaxM O2 (M = Mn and Co) (pages 1097–1101)

      D. Tanabe, T. Shimono, W. Kobayashi and Y. Moritomo

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308101

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      In this Letter, the Na site energy difference (Δε) between Na1 and Na2 sites in NaxM O2 (M =Co, and Mn) has been evaluated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis. The magnitude of Δε is qualitatively interpreted in terms of the screening effect of Na+ charge. This study shows a new way to investigate active materials for sodium (lithium) ion secondary batteries from the crystallographic point of view.

    11. Topological insulators

      Strain engineering of topological properties in lead-salt semiconductors (pages 1102–1106)

      Paolo Barone, Domenico Di Sante and Silvia Picozzi

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308154

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      Lead-salt semiconductors are theoretically predicted to undergo a topological phase transition induced by in-plane strain, which is always present in real films and may be controlled by choosing different substrates. Properties of the metallic surface states, which appear as a consequence of the non-trivial topology of electronic states arising from a mirror crystal symmetry, are predicted to be tunable with strain, with potential technological implications.

    12. Phase-change materials

      Effect of nitrogen doping on the thermal conductivity of GeTe thin films (pages 1107–1111)

      Roberto Fallica, Enrico Varesi, Luca Fumagalli, Simona Spadoni, Massimo Longo and Claudia Wiemer

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The 3ω method was employed to determine the effect of nitrogen doping on the thermal conductivity of sputtered thin films of stoichiometric GeTe (a material of interest for phase change memories). In the experiment, the metal pattern (yellow) generates a sinusoidal heat wave by Joule effect and measures the temperature rise across the stack of thin films of chalcogenide (green) and dielectrics (light blue) deposited on silicon substrate (blue).

  8. Erratum

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      Plasmonic protection of the hot-electron energy (page 1112)

      Krzysztof Kempa

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370475

      This article corrects:

      Plasmonic protection of the hot-electron energy

      Vol. 7, Issue 7, 465–468, Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013

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