physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 5

May 2013

Volume 7, Issue 5

Pages 307–373

  1. Cover Picture

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      Cover Picture: The role of stacking faults for the formation of shunts during potential-induced degradation of crystalline Si solar cells (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5/2013)

      Volker Naumann, Dominik Lausch, Andreas Graff, Martina Werner, Sina Swatek, Jan Bauer, Angelika Hähnel, Otwin Breitenstein, Stephan Großer, Jörg Bagdahn and Christian Hagendorf

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201390013

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Potential-induced degradation (PID) of photovoltaic solar modules gained a lot of interest during the last three years. Many PID-affected modules based on crystalline silicon show intense shunting of the solar cells. In the past, character and origin of these PID-shunts have not been clear. In the contribution by Naumann et al. (see pp. 315–318) monocrystalline and multicrystalline silicon solar cells have been prepared with PID of the shunting type. In plan view, SEM using electron beam induced current and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements reveal local PID-shunts correlated with sodium accumulations. Detailed TEM investigations at cross sections of PID-shunts reveal stacking faults in silicon decorated with sodium. It is concluded that the sodium decorated stacking faults provide paths with high conductivity across the p–n junction, thus leading to the observed shunting.

  2. Issue Information

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  3. Back Cover

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      Back Cover: Transfer of functional memory devices to any substrate (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 5/2013)

      Ji-Min Choi, Moon-Seok Kim, Myeong-Lok Seol and Yang-Kyu Choi

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201390015

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The realization of memory devices on various unconventional substrates has been made possible by use of the transfer printing technique. The memory devices have been fabricated onto a range of unconventional substrates including paper, an insect (cicada), glass, polyethersulphone, polyimide, double-sided tape, Al foil, fabric, a mask, a leather wallet, a name card, a banknote, a latex glove, and a squeezed plastic bottle. In their Letter on pp. 326–331 Choi et al. show that the constraints imposed by process compatibility between the substrates and the device materials are completely eliminated by the use of the transfer printing technique. It is confirmed that the electrical characteristics of the RRAM devices do not degrade during the transfer process. Stable resistive switching properties, reliable endurance levels, and good retention characteristics are demonstrated. The mechanical stability is also analysed and an encapsulation protection layer on top of the memory devices is suggested for long-term reliability. The possibility of the realization of integrated electronic systems onto various substrates will enable the versatile use of these electronics anywhere and anytime in many different environments.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. rrl solar
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  5. NEW IN pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. rrl solar
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. rrl solar

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
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    7. rrl solar
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    1. Solar cell degradation

      The role of stacking faults for the formation of shunts during potential-induced degradation of crystalline Si solar cells (pages 315–318)

      Volker Naumann, Dominik Lausch, Andreas Graff, Martina Werner, Sina Swatek, Jan Bauer, Angelika Hähnel, Otwin Breitenstein, Stephan Großer, Jörg Bagdahn and Christian Hagendorf

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, shunts caused by potential-induced degradation (PID) of crystalline solar cells are investigated in detail. Electron beam induced current measurements at low acceleration voltage reveal that PID shunts are always correlated with stacking faults in a {111} plane. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy mapping and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with EDX analyses prove that these shunting stacking faults are decorated with sodium. Accordingly, a model for PID-shunting is introduced.

    2. Silicon solar cells

      Improved control of the phosphorous surface concentration during in-line diffusion of c-Si solar cells by APCVD (pages 319–321)

      Kristopher O. Davis, Kaiyun Jiang, Carsten Demberger, Heiko Zunft, Helge Haverkamp, Dirk Habermann and Winston V. Schoenfeld

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using phosphosilicate glass thin films deposited by APCVD, the authors report on improved control of phosphorus surface concentration for c-Si solar cells formed by in-line diffusion. They demonstrate doping from APCVD films in a high-throughput, dynamic deposition system, offering an alternative to in-line emitter formation via H3PO4 doping, a technology that suffers from high phosphorus surface concentration.

    3. Heterojunction solar cells

      Free energy loss analysis of heterojunction solar cells (pages 322–325)

      Nils Brinkmann, Gabriel Micard, Yvonne Schiele, Giso Hahn and Barbara Terheiden

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A free energy loss analysis (FELA) of heterojunction silicon solar cells is presented in order to obtain a deeper understanding of this solar cell concept. In particular, this Letter focuses on the influence of the intrinsic buffer layer thickness on the solar cell efficiency.

  7. Rapid Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. rrl solar
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Information for authors
    1. Memory devices

      Transfer of functional memory devices to any substrate (pages 326–331)

      Ji-Min Choi, Moon-Seok Kim, Myeong-Lok Seol and Yang-Kyu Choi

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307084

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This Letter reports the realization of memory devices on various nonconventional substrates by use of the transfer printing technique. The electrical characteristics of the RRAM devices do not degrade during the transfer process. The possibility of the realization of integrated electronic systems onto various substrates will enable the versatile use of these electronics anywhere and anytime in many different environments.

    2. Spin torque switching

      High speed in spin-torque-based magnetic memory using magnetic nanocontacts (pages 332–335)

      R. Sbiaa, S. N. Piramanayagam and T. Liew

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A composite free layer with continuous and nano-constricted parts is proposed to reduce both switching current and time of magnetization. This is the result of an increase of spin torque efficiency. Furthermore, the switching time becomes less dependent on anisotropy field of the free layer. For spin torque magnetic memory application, nano-constricted devices can be scalable with high frequency response and better thermal stability.

    3. Organic LEDs

      Multi-peak and chromaticity-stable top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes using single blue emitter (pages 336–339)

      Wenqing Zhu, Xiaoliang Wu, Wenbing Sun, Jiaheng Li, Linghao Xiong and Jin Cao

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307077

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multi-peak and chromaticity-stable top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes (TEWOLEDs) using single blue emitter are demonstrated. The detailed variation process for multi-peak spectra with the increase of the hole transporting layer thickness is studied, which provides guidance for the design of microcavity TEWOLEDs.

    4. Heterojunction devices

      Fabrication and characteristics of solution-processed graphene oxide–silicon heterojunction (pages 340–343)

      Golap Kalita, Koichi Wakita, Masayoshi Umeno and Masaki Tanemura

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201206516

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Kalita et al. demonstrate the fabrication of a solid state heterojunction device with solution-processed graphene oxide (GO, high optical band gap ∼2.8 eV) and n-type silicon. In the fabricated device, a built-in electric potential was created at the junction, by which photo-excited electrons and holes were transported and collected to obtain photovoltaic action. The simple fabrication technique of the GO/Si heterojunction can be exploited in various applications replacing high-cost fabrication techniques.

    5. Quantum dot spectroscopy

      Two-photon absorption induced anti-Stokes emission in single InGaN/GAN quantum-dot-like objects (pages 344–347)

      R. Bardoux, M. Funato, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, A. Kikuchi and K. Kishino

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307067

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The experimental results of the authors reveal that crossed-transitions are the key point to understand phenomena related to two-photon absorption in quantum dot systems. The combined effects of Auger recombination and crossed transitions explain the preferential excitation of 0D objects at the expense of their surroundings and the origin of anti-Stokes recombination that was observed under two-photon absorption spectroscopy.

    6. Noise in graphene

      High frequency noise of epitaxial graphene grown on sapphire (pages 348–351)

      L. Ardaravicˇius, J. Liberis, E. Šermukšnis, A. Matulionis, J. Hwang, J. Y. Kwak, D. Campbell, H. A. Alsalman, L. F. Eastman and M. G. Spencer

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307074

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The authors report on noise spectrum and dc current measured parallel to the electric field applied in the epitaxial graphene plane grown on sapphire. A 1/f1.25 type noise is found in the 200 MHz-2.5 GHz frequency range. The shot noise contribution is resolved at 10 GHz. The low spectral density of the shot noise is possibly caused by strongly anticorrelated hole jumps between potential barriers in the graphene layer.

    7. Multiferroic composites

      Ultra-high aspect ratio Ni nanowires in single-crystalline InP membranes as multiferroic composite (pages 352–354)

      M.-D. Gerngross, S. Chemnitz, B. Wagner, J. Carstensen and H. Föll

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By combination of chemical etching, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and galvanic deposition it becomes possible to produce Ni nanowires (NWs) with an ultra-high aspect ratio (∼1000), embedded in a semi-insulating, piezoelectric, single-crystalline InP matrix. The Letter discusses the structural and magnetic properties of these Ni NWs. They are crystalline with a preferential growth direction of the grains in 〈111〉. For Hz, they show a very narrow hysteresis loop with a low coercivity (about 100 Oe) and a very low remanence squareness S of 0.08. So the combination of piezoelectric InP and magnetostrictive Ni forms a very promising multiferroic composite.

    8. Germanium phases

      Hexagonal germanium formed via a pressure-induced phase transformation of amorphous germanium under controlled nanoindentation (pages 355–359)

      James S. Williams, Bianca Haber, Sarita Deshmukh, Brett C. Johnson, Brad D. Malone, Marvin L. Cohen and Jodie E. Bradby

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307079

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By applying pressure to amorphous germanium with a spherical diamond tip, the authors show that transformations to dense germanium phases can be readily induced. Upon unloading, these high-pressure phases further transform to a stable hexagonal diamond phase. This is the first clear observation of such a germanium phase following indentation and helps resolve prior inconsistencies in the literature.

    9. Copper oxide compounds

      On the synthesis and properties of ternary copper oxide sulfides (Cu2O1–xSx) (pages 360–363)

      Bruno K. Meyer, Stefan Merita and Angelika Polity

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201206538

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, the alloying effects of Cu2O by sulphur were investigated. The random alloy formation is demonstrated by EDX and XRD measurements and showed that up to a composition of x > 0.39 of Cu2O1–xSx the cubic crystal structure is stable. With increasing sulphur content the absorption edge shifts to the infrared, thus possibly improving the efficiency maximum of photovoltaic cells based on Cu2O.

    10. Thermoelectric materials

      Thermal conductivity of thermoelectric Al-substituted ZnO thin films (pages 364–367)

      Nina Vogel-Schäuble, Tino Jaeger, Yaroslav E. Romanyuk, Sascha Populoh, Christian Mix, Gerhard Jakob and Anke Weidenkaff

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The thermal conductivity of ZnO:Al thin films at room temperature (4.5 ± 1.3 W/mK) is almost one order of magnitude lower compared to the value for bulk samples. This leads to an improved thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of at least 0.04 estimated at 640 K, which is three times higher than for bulk samples.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum: Thermal conductivity of thermoelectric Al-substituted ZnO thin films

      Vol. 8, Issue 2, 206, Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2014

    11. Optical resonators

      Magnetically controllable resonance splitting in a unidirectional waveguide system with coupled cavities (pages 368–371)

      Keyu Tao

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307017

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Remote coupling is highly demanded in the next-generation photonic circuits. However, multi-reflections between the cavities are unavoidable when the cavities are connected by reciprocal waveguides, which bring complex effects to the coupled-cavity system. In this Letter, the reciprocal waveguides are replaced by nonreciprocal waveguides. In contrast to previous research, the strength of coupling becomes independent of the phase shift introduced by waveguides and it changes little with increasing spacing. Thus, it is possible to achieve an effective coupling among distant cavities via unidirectional waveguides.

  8. Information for authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Back Cover
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. rrl solar
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content

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