physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 7

July 2013

Volume 7, Issue 7

Pages 449–519

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      Cover Picture: High quantum efficiency UV detection using a-Se based photodetector (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 7/2013)

      Tomoaki Masuzawa, Masanori Onishi, Ichitaro Saito, Takatoshi Yamada, Angel T. T. Koh, Daniel H. C. Chua, Shuichi Ogawa, Yuji Takakuwa, Yusuke Mori, Tatsuo Shimosawa and Ken Okano

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370438

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      Multiplication in the bulk: Photo-generated elec-tron–hole pairs are split and accelerated in amorphous selenium bulk, which trigger carrier multiplication generating extra carriers. This carrier multiplication boosts the signal of a photodetector, allowing ultra high-sensitivity photodetection. The sensitivity of a prototype photodetector, evaluated in terms of external quantum efficiency, is up to 1,000 for ultraviolet light (∼375 nm), which suggests that up to 1,000 carriers are generated per incident photon. In the Letter by Masuzawa et al. (see pp. 473–476), the physics of the carrier multiplication has been investigated in terms of current–voltage characteristics of the prototype photodetector.

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      Back Cover: Superior electric storage in de-alloyed and anodic oxidized Ti–Ni–Si glassy alloy ribbons (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 7/2013)

      M. Fukuhara, H. Yoshida, M. Sato, K. Sugawara, T. Takeuchi, I. Seki and T. Sueyoshi

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370439

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      Supercapacitor: Mikio Fukuhara et al. (see pp. 477–480) discovered Ti–Ni–Si glassy alloy supercapacitors that can store electric charge on TiO2 surfaces that contain many nanometer-sized cavities. In contrast to the traditional electrochemical reactions, the supercapacitors do not require solutions with ions but directly charge/discharge electrons in wide temperature (∼193–453 K) and voltage (∼200 V) regions under DC and AC applications. The device consists in a distributed constant equivalent circuit of R and C. The cover picture shows de-alloyed and anodic oxidized amorphous TiO2 surface, where canyons of ca. 7 nm in size with higher work functions, Φ, of 5.53 eV can directly store electrons. Further gains could be attained with surface optimization.

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      Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 7/2013

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370440

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    1. Study of hydrogenated AlN as an anti-reflective coating and for the effective surface passivation of silicon (pages 457–460)

      Georg Krugel, Aashish Sharma, Winfried Wolke, Jochen Rentsch and Ralf Preu

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307153

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      The passivation of the front and rear surface of a solar cell is a key feature to reach higher efficiencies. The authors show that sputtered AlN:H can be used as a passivation layer. Excellent passivation with lifetimes exceeding 1 ms is presented. This is traced back to a very low defect density and a high density of fixed charges at the interface to silicon. Furthermore, interesting optical properties are shown for these layers which make them an ideal material for a combined passivation layer and anti-reflective coating.

    2. Light-induced degradation in indium-doped silicon (pages 461–464)

      Christian Möller and Kevin Lauer

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307165

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      Light-induced degradation (LID) in boron-doped silicon solar cells was discovered in 1973. In the last decade the origin of the defect is again in discussion, not least because of the investigations in compensated silicon. The authors observe LID in indium-doped silicon and disprove the opinion that LID occurs only in boron-doped silicon. Further, this leads to a totally new approach for the underlying origin of the LID defect model.

    3. Plasmonic protection of the hot-electron energy (pages 465–468)

      Krzysztof Kempa

      Version of Record online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307101

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      In solar cells, most of the absorbed photon energy is wasted to generate heat. In this Letter, it is shown how to protect this energy by storing it in plasmonic form in a nanostructure, which is simultaneously a plasmonic reservoir and an electron-collecting electrode. The stored energy increases the chemical potential of the reservoir, and thus the voltage of the cell. Such hot electron plasmon protected (HELPP) solar cell offers a dramatically improved efficiency.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Plasmonic protection of the hot-electron energy

      Vol. 7, Issue 12, 1112, Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2013

    4. Air stability of PTCDI-C13-based n-OFETs on polymer interfacial layers (pages 469–472)

      Jeongkyun Roh, Jaemin Lee, Chan-mo Kang, Changhee Lee and Byung J. Jung

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307150

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      This Letter reports the improvement of the air stability of n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFET). Poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as a dielectric interfacial layer reduces the trapped charges in the n-OFET for air-exposure and causes a decrease in the threshold voltage shift. Among the PVKs with different weight-average molecular weight (Mw), PVKs with high Mw show good performance. The high glass transition temperature of PVK enables thermal post-annealing of the active layer, which results in a high electron mobility.

    5. High quantum efficiency UV detection using a-Se based photodetector (pages 473–476)

      Tomoaki Masuzawa, Masanori Onishi, Ichitaro Saito, Takatoshi Yamada, Angel T. T. Koh, Daniel H. C. Chua, Shuichi Ogawa, Yuji Takakuwa, Yusuke Mori, Tatsuo Shimosawa and Ken Okano

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307185

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      The authors report on an extremely high-sensitivity UV detector that consists of an amorphous selenium-based photoconductor and a nitrogen-doped diamond cold cathode. A carrier multiplication effect in amorphous selenium thin film allows a quantum efficiency of 100,000%, i.e. up to 1000 carriers are generated per incident photon.

    6. Superior electric storage in de-alloyed and anodic oxidized Ti–Ni–Si glassy alloy ribbons (pages 477–480)

      M. Fukuhara, H. Yoshida, M. Sato, K. Sugawara, T. Takeuchi, I. Seki and T. Sueyoshi

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307195

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This Letter reports on a Ti–Ni–Si glassy alloy supercapacitor that can store electric charge on TiO2 surfaces that contain many nanometer-sized cavities. In contrast to the traditional electrochemical reactions, the supercapacitor does not require solutions with ions but can directly charge/discharge electrons in wide temperature (∼193–453 K) and voltage (∼200 V) regions under DC and AC application. The device consists in a distributed constant equivalent circuit of R and C.

    7. Surface Tamm states in a photonic crystal slab with asymmetric termination (pages 481–484)

      Galina V. Li, Ekaterina V. Astrova, Sergey A. Dyakov, Anna Baldycheva, Tatiana S. Perova, Sergey G. Tikhodeev and Nikolay A. Gippius

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307151

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      The reflection and transmission spectra of a finite-thickness 2D photonic crystal slab are investigated. Homogeneous interfacial layers at the silicon/air boundary define the properties of surface Tamm states. The surface state manifests itself as a dip within the TE photonic stop band in the reflection spectrum registered from side 1. The dip disappears when the structure is illuminated from side 2. The nature of this phenomenon is discussed.

    8. High-performance In–Zn–O thin-film transistors with a soluble processed ZrO2 gate insulator (pages 485–488)

      Byeong-Geun Son, So Yeon Je, Hyo Jin Kim, Chul-Kyu Lee, Chang-Kyu Lee, Ah Young Hwang, Ju Yeon Won, Ji Hun Song, Rino Choi and Jae Kyeong Jeong

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307128

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      In this Letter, the authors describe the fabrication of high performance indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) with a soluble processed ZrO2 oxide gate dielectric. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural and electrical properties of ZrO2 gate dielectric has been studied. The IZO TFTs with a 400 °C-annealed ZrO2 gate insulator exhibit a high field effect mobility of 23.4 cm2/Vs, excellent subthreshold gate swing of 70 mV/decade and a reasonable Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼106.

    9. Conducting polymer based hybrid structure as transparent and flexible field electron emitter (pages 489–492)

      Debasish Ghosh, Pradip Ghosh, Golap Kalita, Takuto Noda, Chisato Takahashi and Masaki Tanemura

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307175

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      Highly transparent and flexible field electron emitters (FEE) have been developed by the combination of conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This kind of hybrid material could be suitable to act as excellent FEE with high current density (10–3A/cm2) for the fabrication of future portable displays.

    10. Resistive switching characteristics of sol–gel based ZnO nanorods fabricated on flexible substrates (pages 493–496)

      Soyun Park, Jae Hyuk Lee, Hee-Dong Kim, Seok Man Hong, Ho-Myoung An and Tae Geun Kim

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307187

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      The resistive switching characteristics are observed from sol–gel based ZnO nanorods (NRs) fabricated on flexible substrates. The Au/ZnO NRs/Au capacitor exhibits stable unipolar resistive switching behavior with a resistance ratio of 10, endurance of over 100 cycles, and narrower dispersion in the ON/OFF voltages and resistances compared to ZnO thin films. Furthermore, the performance of this flexible RRAM device is very retainable over time, even under continuous substrate bending.

    11. Bias temperature instability analysis on memory properties improved by hydrogen annealing treatment in Ti/HfOx /Pt capacitors (pages 497–500)

      Hee-Dong Kim, Min Ju Yun, Seok Man Hong, Ho-Myoung An and Tae Geun Kim

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307192

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      The influence of the hydrogen annealing treatment on the reliability of HfOx-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) is investigated by analyzing the bias temperature instability (BTI). In BTI test, the current shift at the high resistance state (HRS) is reduced under a bias temperature stress. These results show that the hydrogen annealing treatment is very effective in improving the reliability of RRAM cells because it reduces the leakage current under bias temperature stress.

    12. Silicon nanodot formation and self-ordering under bombardment with heavy Bi3 ions (pages 501–505)

      Roman Böttger, Karl-Heinz Heinig, Lothar Bischoff, Bartosz Liedke, René Hübner and Wolfgang Pilz

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307127

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      High-density Si nanodots are formed by polyatomic Bi ion irradiation of hot Si surfaces. Each impact causes local transient melt pools smaller than the dots. Hexagonally ordered patterns evolve by self-organization driven by repeated ion-induced melting of tiny volumes. Homogeneously distributed Bi nanocrystals are found in the a-Si film. These nanocrystals are related to particularities of the Si-Bi phase diagram.

    13. Mechanical stress effect on the crystallization behavior of Ge2Sb2Te5 films studied by electrical resistance measurement (pages 506–509)

      Yingchao Du, Yi Kan, Xiaomei Lu, Yunfei Liu, Huifeng Bo, Wei Cai, Dazhi Hu, Fengzhen Huang and Jinsong Zhu

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307167

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      In this Letter external stress effect on the crystallization behavior of phase-change material is studied. For amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 prepared by pulsed laser deposition, its crystallization temperature increases and decreases by applied compressive and tensile stresses, respectively. Both, cavities and interactions between atoms impacted by external stress are suggested as possible reason. With these efforts, the authors expect to further disclose the stress effects on the performance and reliability of phase-change materials.

    14. Hydrostatic pressure effect on Tc of new BiS2-based Bi4O4S3 and NdO0.5F0.5BiS2 layered superconductors (pages 510–513)

      G. Kalai Selvan, M. Kanagaraj, S. Esakki Muthu, Rajveer Jha, V. P. S. Awana and S. Arumugam

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307125

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      The external pressure effect on Tc of layered superconductors Bi4O4S3 and NdO0.5F0.5BiS2 has been studied using electrical resistivity measurements. Tc was found to decrease from 4.8 to 4.3 K for pressures up to 1.46 GPa in Bi4O4S3 (upper part in the figure), whereas in NdO0.5F0.5BiS2, Tc initially increases from 4.6 to 5 K for pressures up to 1.31 GPa and thereafter it decreases while further applying pressure of 1.75 GPa (lower part in the figure).

    15. Free transverse vibration in periodically hinged identical beams on elastic foundations: a single material phononic crystal (pages 514–517)

      Lin Han, Yan Zhang, Lin-hua Jiang and Zi-ming Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307178

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      The authors find that infinite periodically hinged identical beams on elastic foundations, composed of just one material, have transverse vibration band gaps (BGs). The BG properties are studied by the modified transfer matrix method and frequency response analysis. A combined first BG exists in the system, and this helps to obtain easily wider low BGs.

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    4. Issue Information
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    6. NEW IN pss
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