physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 9

September 2013

Volume 7, Issue 9

Pages 528–682

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: One decade of fully transparent oxide thin-film transistors: fabrication, performance and stability (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 9/2013)

      Heiko Frenzel, Alexander Lajn and Marius Grundmann

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370450

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this issue, Frenzel, Lajn and Grundmann review the technological progress of fully transparent oxide thin film transistors (see pp. 605–615). They find a clear trend towards the usage of amorphous oxide semiconductors that can be fabricated by means of cheap and scalable fabrication techniques. This provides a way to the design of large-scale transparent electronics. However, for the fabrication of adequately insulating dielectric layers, used in the leading technology of metal–insulator–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs), still more sophisticated growth methods are needed. The authors show that metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) using transparent rectifying contacts as gate are a suitable alternative technology. The cover depicts a transparent MESFET (TMESFET) sample illuminated from the backside. The sample contains 88 TMESFETs with the contact configuration as shown in the scheme (S – source, D – drain, G – gate, M – mesa). On the right side, a typical measurement setup for bias, illumination and temperature stress is shown together with the most important figures of merit (SS – subthreshold slope, Ion/off – on/off current ratio, Von – turn-on voltage and μFE – field-effect mobility).

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Back Cover: Quantitative evaluation method for electroluminescence images of a-Si:H thin-film solar modules (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 9/2013)

      T. M. H. Tran, B. E. Pieters, M. Schneemann, T. C. M. Müller, A. Gerber, T. Kirchartz and U. Rau

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370451

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electroluminescence (EL), i.e. the emission of light under a forward voltage bias, is the reciprocal process of the standard operation mode of a solar cell. For this study, Tran et al. used a charged coupled device (CCD) Si-CCD camera and an InGaAs camera, which are sensitive to light absorbed in the infrared spectral range, to detect the electroluminescent emission from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar modules. In their Letter on pp. 627–630, the authors demonstrate a method to extract the absolute local junction voltage of a-Si:H modules from electroluminescence images due to the relation between the local junction voltage and the local EL emission. Thereby, a radiative ideality factor nr for the electroluminescence emission with nr >1 is derived which depends on the samples and the spectral sensitivity of the camera system used in the experiment.

  3. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 9/2013

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201370452

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. NEW IN pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  7. Review@RRL

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. One decade of fully transparent oxide thin-film transistors: fabrication, performance and stability (pages 605–615)

      Heiko Frenzel, Alexander Lajn and Marius Grundmann

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307259

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fully transparent oxide thin-film transistors celebrate their 10th anniversary. Since the beginnings, using crystalline channel layers, there have been manifold improvements in terms of device performance and stability under stress. Today, mostly low-temperature grown amorphous channel layers are used. However, dielectrics are still fabricated by sophisticated techniques to suppress leakage currents. Metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors based on transparent rectifying contacts as gate electrode represent a promising alternative technology for transparent electronics.

  8. rrl solar

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. Thermal deactivation of lifetime- limiting grown-in point defects in n-type Czochralski silicon wafers (pages 616–618)

      F. E. Rougieux, N. E. Grant and D. Macdonald

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308053

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this study, the authors uncover a recombination-active grown-in defect reducing the minority carrier lifetime of Czochralski grown n-type silicon from 5 ms to below 2 ms. They also show that the defect can be de-activated by annealing between 300 °C and 360 °C, demonstrating the need to mitigate this defect for solar cell processes, especially hetero-junction solar cells processed at low temperatures. The experimental findings suggest that vacancy-related pairs incorporated during ingot growth may be responsible for the decreased minority carrier lifetime.

    2. Plasma hydrogenated, reactively sputtered aluminium oxide for silicon surface passivation (pages 619–622)

      Xinyu Zhang and Andres Cuevas

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308027

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This Letter demonstrates a new method for reactive sputtering of aluminium oxide. By adding hydrogen gas into the plasma gas during deposition, the resulting AlOx films lead to a dramatic improvement of the surface passivation of crystalline silicon wafers. This technique shows the potential of making high efficiency silicon solar cells with low-cost and an industrial feasible fabrication process.

    3. Co-diffusion from solid sources for bifacial n-type solar cells (pages 623–626)

      Philip Rothhardt, Roman Keding, Andreas Wolf and Daniel Biro

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simplified diffusion process for the fabrication of bifacial n-type solar cells is introduced. Doped glasses deposited by PECVD act as doping sources for the formation of boron emitter and phosphorus back surface field during one single high temperature step. I–V data allow for the discussion of advantages and challenges of this co-diffusion process.

    4. Quantitative evaluation method for electroluminescence images of a-Si:H thin-film solar modules (pages 627–630)

      T. M. H. Tran, B. E. Pieters, M. Schneemann, T. C. M. Müller, A. Gerber, T. Kirchartz and U. Rau

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308039

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, the authors demonstrate a method to extract the absolute local junction voltage of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells and modules from electroluminescence images. Thereby, an ideality factor nr larger than one is derived which depends on the device and the spectral sensitivity of the camera system used in the experiment.

    5. Efficiency enhancement of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells by a post-deposition treatment with potassium fluoride (pages 631–634)

      Anke Laemmle, Roland Wuerz and Michael Powalla

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307238

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Alkali-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorbers were doped with potassium (K) after CIGS growth by a post-deposition treatment (PDT). The addition of K to the absorber leads to a strong increase in cell efficiency from 10.0% for the K-free cell to 14.2% for the K-doped cell, mainly driven by an increase in the open-circuit voltage Voc and the fill factor FF.

    6. Micro gratings written in ZnO:Al thin films using picosecond UV-laser interference patterning (pages 635–638)

      Sven Ring, Bernd Stannowski, Frank Fink and Rutger Schlatmann

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307254

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter the authors present results on the formation of grating textures in ZnO:Al thin films using direct pulsed laser interference patterning. The formation of single 1D micro gratings with submicron feature size is studied, and then applied to writing large-area textures. The authors report on electrical and optical properties of laser textured ZnO:Al thin films relevant to applications in photovoltaics.

  9. Rapid Research Letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. Crossed graphene: Stability and electronic structure (pages 639–642)

      Silvia Bahmann, Torsten Weißbach and Jens Kortus

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307226

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new bulk structure of carbon was found by means of density-functional-theory calculations applying an evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction. The crystal structure presented can be described as a regular array of interconnected graphene planes. The stability in comparison with other phases of carbon is discussed. Further, the authors present electronic, elastic and vibrational properties including a theoretical Raman spectrum for possible identification.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Is graphene on copper doped? (pages 643–646)

      Alexander J. Marsden, Maria-Carmen Asensio, José Avila, Pavel Dudin, Alexei Barinov, Paolo Moras, Polina M. Sheverdyaeva, Thomas W. White, Ian Maskery, Giovanni Costantini, Neil R. Wilson and Gavin R. Bell

      Version of Record online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307224

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using nano-spot angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) it is shown that graphene grown on low-cost copper foil is undoped with an ideal gapless band structure, even after air exposure. The figure shows nano-ARPES of a Dirac cone “slice” after annealing in vacuum. At 200 °C the band structure is that of pristine undoped graphene. However, annealing to 500 °C induces a gap and doping, and the authors explore the possible mechanisms.

    3. Time-resolved free carrier lifetime microscopy in bulk GaN (pages 647–650)

      Patrik Šcˇajev, Saulius Nargelas and Kęstutis Jarašiūnas

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307217

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A lifetime microscopy setup was designed and applied for excess carrier lifetime mapping in a bulk HVPE-grown GaN. Time-resolved free carrier absorption images on a CCD camera revealed carrier lifetime distribution with a 5 μm spatial and 2 ns temporal resolution. The strong lifetime inhomogeneity in the 10 to 70 ns range was ascribed to the interplay of nonradiative recombination at grain boundaries and in their centers.

    4. Delta(δ)-doping of semiconductor nanowires (pages 651–654)

      Matthew Zervos

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307219

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Delta(δ)-doping of semiconductor epitaxial layers involves the deposition and confinement of impurities to a two-dimensional layer having a thickness of a few nm, but it has not been investigated in connection with nanowires. Here, the properties of δ-layers with different sheet densities and positions along the radius of nanowires have been investigated from a theoretical point of view, identifying δ-doping of nanowires as a flexible method for tailoring the potential profile and charge distribution of nanoscale devices.

    5. Aligned silicon nanowires with fine-tunable tilting angles by metal-assisted chemical etching on off-cut wafers (pages 655–658)

      Jie Ma, Liping Wen, Zhichao Dong, Tong Zhang, Shutao Wang and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307190

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Uniformly tilted silicon nanowires with precisely controlled tilting angles were achieved by metal-assisted chemical etching of off-cut silicon wafers. The range of the tilting angles that can be achieved was identified, and transition from ordered to disordered nanowires was observed.

    6. Drop-cast and dye-sensitized ZnO nanorod-based visible-light photodetectors (pages 659–663)

      Yeong Hwan Ko, Sunkook Kim and Jae Su Yu

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307160

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Drop-cast and dye-sensitized ZnO nanorods (NRs)-based metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors operating over a wide wavelength range (405–638 nm) were demonstrated. The ZnO NRs were synthesized via a hydrothermal method. Under 405 nm light illumination, a photocurrent gain of ∼3.9 × 103 was obtained at an applied bias voltage of 5 V. Also, these readily fabricated photodetectors exhibited a rapid recovery performance for longer-wavelength visible light of 638 nm.

    7. Exciting the optical response of nanowire metamaterial films on the tip of optical fibres (pages 664–667)

      I. T. Leite, A. Hierro-Rodríguez, A. O. Silva, J. M. Teixeira, C. T. Sousa, M. P. Fernández-García, J. P. Araújo, P. A. S. Jorge and A. Guerreiro

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308033

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, an Ag-nanowire metamaterial film was produced by a bottom-up fabrication process and assembled on the tip of an optical fibre, without any modification of its optical properties. The experimental observations are in agreement with the excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons along the metallic nanowires. These results pave the way for low-cost optical fibre devices that incorporate metamaterial films.

    8. Oxygen vacancy dominant strong visible photoluminescence from BiFeO3 nanotubes (pages 668–671)

      N. Miriyala, K. Prashanthi and T. Thundat

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308069

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this Letter, the authors report oxygen vacancy dominant visible photoluminescence (PL) from multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) nanotubes (NTs) prepared by sol–gel template method. Though oxygen vacancies are insignificant and detrimental in bulk, they have profound importance in altering optoelectronic characteristics at the nanoscale because of high surface-to-volume ratio. This study not only assists in understanding the optoelectronic characteristics of BFO NTs at the nanoscale but also suggests BFO nanostructures as potential candidates for future photonic and sensing applications.

    9. Unusual domain configurations and local piezoresponse in the [720]-cut BaTiO3 single crystal (pages 672–675)

      H. R. Zeng, F. Sun, K. Y. Zhao, F. X. Li, X. W. Zhang, R. Q. Chu, H. S. Luo and G. R. Li

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High resolution piezoresponse force microscopy was used to investigate the domain configurations and the local piezoresponse property of the [720]-cut BaTiO3 single crystal. The underlying mechanism for the ultrahigh piezoresponse is possibly related to high strain energy in the crystals due to the large surface bending angle across ferroelastic domains walls.

    10. The influence of annealing on the bimodal distribution of blocking temperatures of exchange biased bilayers (pages 676–680)

      J. Ventura, J. M. Teixeira, E. Paz, J. S. Amaral, J. D. Costa, A. Apolinario, J. P. Araujo, S. Cardoso, R. Ferreira and P. P. Freitas

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201307257

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The authors show that the low temperature blocking temperature distribution in exchange biased MnIr/CoFe bilayers usually attributed to interfacial disorder depends on both annealing temperature and antiferromagnetic layer thickness. This distribution was found to be more significant in the thinnest samples (25 Å), although independent of annealing temperature. For the thickest samples (60 Å), the low temperature distribution largely increases with annealing temperature up to 673 K, due to enhanced disorder arising from Mn diffusion.

  10. Information for authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. NEW IN pss
    8. Review@RRL
    9. rrl solar
    10. Rapid Research Letters
    11. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION