physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 2

February 2014

Volume 8, Issue 2

Pages 113–208

  1. Cover Picture

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    7. Review@RRL
    8. Rapid Research Letters
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      Cover Picture: Zinc oxide films and nanomaterials for photovoltaic applications (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 2/2014)

      Aleksandra B. Djurišić, Xiang Liu and Yu Hang Leung

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201470508

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      Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile wide band gap semiconducting material, which is of great interest for a huge range of practical applications including applications in photovoltaic devices. One of the advantageous and attractive features of ZnO is that a large variety of nanostructured morphologies can be synthesized with simple but low-cost methods. In their Review@RRL (pp. 123–132), Djurišić et al. provide an overview of ZnO applications in solar cells (for both thin films and nanostructures). ZnO-based materials can be used as electrodes and/or scattering/light trapping layers, as well as electron transport layers (in dye-sensitized solar cells and polymer solar cells). For each of these applications, there are certain key properties of ZnO which should be optimized. In some specific applications, like polymer-based solar cells, there can also be practical device preparation difficulties (infiltration of the polymer into nanostructured ZnO). Thus, for each type of application, the authors briefly summarize the common research directions, as well as existing problems and unresolved questions.

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      Back Cover: Effect of solvent evaporation on the self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and on the film morphology during electrospray deposition (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 2/2014)

      Yingjie Liao, Takeshi Fukuda and Norihiko Kamata

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201470509

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      Electrospray deposition (ESD) is a widely used solution process which employs electric force to transform a liquid into a thin film through the formation of fine liquid droplets. In their Letter on pp. 154–157, Liao et al. demonstrate that the high-voltage rectangular pulse driven ESD can provide a way to probe the effect of solvent evaporation on the evaporation-induced self-assembly of poly(3-hexyl¬thiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) in slow motion during deposition process. The self-assembly of P3HT molecules was correlated with the evaporation of the residual solvent during the pulse interval and reflected in their absorption spectra through better resolved vibronic sidebands. With an appropriate combination of pulse amplitude and pulse interval, the ESD can produce a P3HT thin film of high chain ordering. All of these findings not only help us to gain insight into the ESD process, but also promote the application of ESD to the fabrication of semiconductor devices with a reasonable processing speed.

  3. Issue Information

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    4. Issue Information
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      Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 2/2014

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201470510

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Review@RRL
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Erratum
    10. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  5. NEW IN pss

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Issue Information
    5. Contents
    6. NEW IN pss
    7. Review@RRL
    8. Rapid Research Letters
    9. Erratum
    10. Information for authors
    1. You have free access to this content
  6. Review@RRL

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    7. Review@RRL
    8. Rapid Research Letters
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    1. Zinc oxide films and nanomaterials for photovoltaic applications (pages 123–132)

      Aleksandra B. Djurišić, Xiang Liu and Yu Hang Leung

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201300103

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      In this article, a review of the use of ZnO (thin films and nanostructures) in different types of solar cells is provided. Common research directions in the use of ZnO to improve photovoltaic performance are summarised, and existing problems and possible strategies to overcome them are discussed.

  7. Rapid Research Letters

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    1. C60 adsorption on Cu(110) studied by optical spectroscopy (pages 133–136)

      L. Zhang, X. Fu, L. D. Sun and P. Zeppenfeld

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308240

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      Reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) measurement reveals that the electronic interaction between C60 molecules in the first monolayer and the Cu(110) substrate quenches the low-energy intramolecular transitions, whereas the C60 molecules above the first monolayer are effectively decoupled from the substrate. This Letter also shows that surface sensitive optical spectroscopy is powerful means for the study of electronic interactions at organic–inorganic interfaces.

    2. Reduction of n-type diamond contact resistance by graphite electrode (pages 137–140)

      Tsubasa Matsumoto, Hiromitsu Kato, Norio Tokuda, Toshiharu Makino, Masahiko Ogura, Daisuke Takeuchi, Hideyo Okushi and Satoshi Yamasaki

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308252

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      In this Letter, specific contact resistance (ρC) between n-type diamond and metal was analyzed as a function of the voltage applied at interfaces (Vint). Using graphite electrodes, the authors succeeded in reducing the specific contact resistance by a factor of ten compared to that of Ti/Pt/Au electrodes.

    3. Magnetic and electromagnetic absorption properties of FeNi alloy nanoparticles supported by reduced graphene oxide (pages 141–145)

      Chen Sun, Wei Jiang, Yujiao Wang, Danping Sun, Jie Liu, Pingyun Li and Fengsheng Li

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308218

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      In this Letter, sphere-like FeNi alloy nanoparticles supported by reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were successfully synthesized through in-situ reduction by hydrazine hydrate. The FeNi/RGO nanocomposites exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and show outstanding electromagnetic absorption properties in the 2–18 GHz range (the minimal reflection loss RL reaches to –32 dB at 12.4 GHz with a thickness of 1.5 mm).

    4. Metal bonding strength in low-temperature processed titanium using atomic force microscopy with single-wall carbon nanotube tip (pages 146–149)

      E. M. Choi, Y. H. Cui, S. H. Kwon, A. R. Kim, H. S. Choi, S. J. Lee and S. G. Pyo

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308249

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      Atomic force microscopy is used to study the effect of Ti–Ti bonding strength. The chemical surface activation of Ti bonding interface provides sufficiently high values of the bonding strength, showing that it has a high application potential for low bonding temperature semiconductor processing. To measure the surface accurately, a single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) tip was developed and applied, with improved resolution instead of using scanning tunneling microscopy.

    5. Inkjet printed PEDOT:PSS/MWCNT nano-composites with aligned carbon nanotubes and enhanced conductivity (pages 150–153)

      A. S. Alshammari, M. Shkunov and S. Ravi P. Silva

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308231

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      In this Letter, a simple technique to control the orientation of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in printed PEDOT:PSS/MWCNT nano-composite samples is demonstrated. The effect of CNT alignment on the morphological and electrical properties of the nano-composite samples is also investigated. Electrical measurements show that the electrical conductivity of the samples increases by about 53% after alignment of the nanotubes.

    6. Effect of solvent evaporation on the self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and on the film morphology during electrospray deposition (pages 154–157)

      Yingjie Liao, Takeshi Fukuda and Norihiko Kamata

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308228

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) thin films were fabricated using a high-voltage pulse-driven electrospray deposition method. The evaporation-induced self-assembly of P3HT molecules during the deposition was controlled by varying the pulse amplitude and pulse interval, which was reflected in the absorption spectra in better resolved vibronic sidebands.

    7. Conductivity of anodic TiO2 nanotubes: Influence of annealing conditions (pages 158–162)

      Alexei Tighineanu, Sergiu P. Albu and Patrik Schmuki

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308221

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      In this Letter the authors report on the resistivity of anodic TiO2 nanotubes as a function of annealing temperature and atmosphere. Significant effects of several orders of magnitude are observed and explained by differences in the crystallinity and self-doping level.

    8. Additive advantage in characteristics of MIMCAPs on flexible silicon (100) fabric with release-first process (pages 163–166)

      Mohamed T. Ghoneim, Jhonathan P. Rojas, Aftab M. Hussain and Muhammad M. Hussain

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308209

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      Inspired by the world's most powerful and energy efficient computer: brain's folded architecture, transformation of conventional electronics into flexible and transparent one has been performed by etching of deep trenches in semiconductor wafer. These trenches eventually help to achieve increased normalized capacitance per unit planar area from fabricated arrays of high-κ /metal gate MIMCAP devices enabling higher integration density for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) – integral component of today's computational devices.

    9. Synchrotron radiation photoemission study of interface formation between MgO and the atomically clean In0.53Ga0.47As surface (pages 167–171)

      Lalit Chauhan and Greg Hughes

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308192

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      The electrical quality of interface formation between high-κ dielectric materials and high mobility semiconductor substrates can be greatly improved by the insertion of an interface control layer. In this study, the chemical interactions between an ultrathin MgO layer and the atomically clean InGaAs surface are investigated in order to understand the optimisation of interface formation for semiconductor device applications.

    10. Ultra-thin (002)-oriented Al-doped zinc oxide transparent electrode grown on oxygen-controlled homo-seed layer (pages 172–175)

      Muqin Wang, Ye Yang, Pinjun Lan, Ke Zhu, Jinhua Huang, Yuehui Lu, Ruiqin Tan and Weijie Song

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308238

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      The oxygen-controlled homo-seed layer played an important role in improving the crystalline quality and structural order of Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) ultra-thin films. The AZO ultra-thin films fabricated on this seed layer showed best electrical properties, as decreased resistivity and increased carrier concentration and mobility.

    11. Highly stable amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors with back-channel wet-etch process (pages 176–181)

      Dongxiang Luo, Min Li, Miao Xu, Jiawei Pang, Yanli Zhang, Lang Wang, Hong Tao, Lei Wang, Jianhua Zou and Junbiao Peng

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308247

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      Amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (IZO-TFTs) with back-channel-etch (BCE) structure exhibit a poor bias stability, attributed to the formation of etching residues during the patterning of source/drain electrodes. The SF6 plasma generated by the plasma cleaner with direct plasma mode is employed to eliminate the etching residues. Compared to the as-fabricated device, the plasma treated BCE-TFT exhibits more stable behavior against the application of bias stress.

    12. Strong blue emission from ZnSe nanowires grown at low temperature (pages 182–186)

      Valentina Zannier, Faustino Martelli, Vincenzo Grillo, Jasper R. Plaisier, Andrea Lausi and Silvia Rubini

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308264

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      ZnSe nanowires can be grown at temperatures below the range that is commonly believed necessary to have vapor–liquid–solid growth. Their photoluminescence has a strong and narrow near-band-edge emission. This low-temperature growth opens the way to use blue-emitting ZnSe nanowires for flexible and low-cost optoelectronics.

    13. Semiconductor with intrinsic spin: a hybrid structure of zigzag edge graphene nanoribbon/single-walled carbon nanotube (pages 187–190)

      Ping Lou

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308281

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      The electronic and magnetic properties of a hybrid structure of n -ZGRN/(m,m)SWCNT, namely n ZGNR-(m,m)SWCNT are studied. First principles density functional theory calculations reveal that n ZGNR-(m,m)SWCNT is a ferromagnetic semiconductor with intrinsic spin which can provide and control completely spin-polarized currents with reversible spin polarization just by applying a gate voltage. Generally, all the applications for semiconductors could be suitable for semiconductors with intrinsic spin.

    14. Dielectric and charge transport properties of the spin crossover complex [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) (pages 191–193)

      Constantin Lefter, Il'ya A. Gural'skiy, Haonan Peng, Gábor Molnár, Lionel Salmon, Aurelian Rotaru, Azzedine Bousseksou and Philippe Demont

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308256

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      In this Letter, the authors report an AC conductivity analysis on the [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) spin crossover complex and reveal the spin-state dependence of the electrical conductivity, permittivity and modulus in a broad frequency range. This study confirms recent findings in spin-state dependent conductivity measurements and highlights a unique behavior of the relaxation frequencies of charge carriers.

    15. Influence of DC bias fields on the linear/nonlinear magnetoelectric effect and the sensitivity in laminate composites (pages 194–197)

      Yuting Liu, Jie Jiao, Lingying Li, Jiashuai Ma, Bo Ren, Jianwei Chen, Wenning Di, Xiangyong Zhao, Haosu Luo and Ling Shi

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308187

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      This Letter presents the latest progress in active mode magnetoelectric (ME) sensor. In order to obtain high magnetic field sensitivity, the influence of DC bias fields on the linear/nonlinear ME effect and the noise behavior has been theoretically and experimentally studied. This work will not only contribute to the understanding of the nonlinear/linear ME effect in ME composites, but also points the way to the improvement of sensitivity.

    16. Preparation and dielectric properties of the KBiScNbO6 double perovskite (pages 198–201)

      Oleg Ivanov, Elena Danshina, Irina Sudzhanskaya and Alexei Vasil'ev

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308266

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      Double perovskites with general formula MBiScNbO6 (M = Na, K, and Rb) are considered as novel ferroelectrics having interesting physical properties. The ceramic KBiScNbO6 compound was for the first time synthesized and investigated. Dielectric measurements demonstrate anomalies associated with relaxor ferroelectric behavior. Relaxor behavior is originated from the appearance and temperature evolution of a polar phase (green color) distributed inside a nonpolar matrix (red color). Phase distribution pattern was obtained by EDSD method.

    17. Yb3+ site occupation and host sensitization luminescence of a novel near-infrared emitting Sr2CaMoO6:Yb3+ phosphor (pages 202–205)

      Enyan Wang, Wenli Zhou, Chunmeng Liu, Jing Wang, Xiaojun Kuang, Yanmei Ye, Jinke Tang and Qiang Su

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308278

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      In this Letter, it is reported that Yb3+ ions preferentially occupy Ca2+ sites of the Sr2CaMoO6 host, and the Sr2CaMoO6:Yb3+ phosphor can harvest ultraviolet–blue photons and exhibit intense near-infrared (NIR) emission at around 1012 nm. Moreover, the absolute NIR photoluminescence quantum yield is estimated to be about 9%. The Sr2CaMoO6:Yb3+ phosphor may be a promising luminescence downshifting material for improving the spectral response of solar cells in the UV region.

  8. Erratum

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      Erratum: Thermal conductivity of thermoelectric Al-substituted ZnO thin films (page 206)

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201409055

      This article corrects:

      Thermal conductivity of thermoelectric Al-substituted ZnO thin films

      Vol. 7, Issue 5, 364–367, Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013

  9. Information for authors

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