physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 3

March 2014

Volume 8, Issue 3

Pages 209–292

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      Cover Picture: Compositional investigation of potassium doped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 20.8% (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 3/2014)

      Philip Jackson, Dimitrios Hariskos, Roland Wuerz, Wiltraud Wischmann and Michael Powalla

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201470514

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      Thin films of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) due to their exceptionally good light absorption properties can get by with a very thin photo-active layer of only 2–3 μm whilst still catching the sun's energy. With such a sparing use of materials as compared to traditional technologies based on silicon, thin-film solar cells promise a major production cost reduction. Up to now, however, thin-film photovoltaics never could reach the same conversion efficiency level as the silicon based devices. Now CIGS, with a new record efficiency of 20.8% on the laboratory scale (see the Letter by Philip Jackson et al., pp. 219–222), for the first time outshines a major silicon competitor, multicrystalline silicon (20.4%). The key to this break-through was the application of a new doping technique. Doping in CIGS is significantly more complex than in silicon solar cells due to its multinary structure, the various intrinsic crystal defects and the diffusion of various contaminants from the glass substrate. The improvement in controlling this complex doping process has led to a remarkable increase in device performance. Due to the more complex physical and chemical environment of CIGS and the resulting multifaceted interactions, the new doping technique also enables production of CIGS solar cells with higher band gaps and higher open-circuit voltages.

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      Back Cover: Wavy channel thin film transistor architecture for area efficient, high performance and low power displays (Phys. Status Solidi RRL 3/2014)

      Amir N. Hanna, Galo A. Torres Sevilla, Mohamed T. Ghoneim, Aftab M. Hussain, Rabab R. Bahabry, Ahad Syed and Muhammad M. Hussain

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201470515

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      As shown by Hanna et al. (pp. 248–251), by generating a wavy architecture in classical transistor topology, high output current is achieved – opening up bold futuristic opportunity for ultra-high resolution bright display. Irrespective of the material choice – the unique architecture can provide exciting thin film transistor performance enhancement.Hanna et al. demonstrate the advantage of using the wavy architecture in terms of area efficiency, higher output current, higher field-effect mobility and similar OFF current levels and Ion/Ioff ratios compared to the planar counterparts for a thin film transistor fabricated with zinc oxide channel material. The low OFF current levels and high Ion/Ioff ratios for the wavy-channel devices ensure that standby power consumption remains similar to the planar counterparts, while improving the ON current values. This proves the significance of this new architecture for large-area high-resolution display applications.

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      Issue Information: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 3/2014

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201470516

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      Contents: Phys. Status Solidi RRL 3/2014 (pages 209–215)

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201470517

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  6. rrl solar

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    1. Highly-efficient CIGS solar cells

      Compositional investigation of potassium doped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 20.8% (pages 219–222)

      Philip Jackson, Dimitrios Hariskos, Roland Wuerz, Wiltraud Wischmann and Michael Powalla

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201409040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new world record efficiency for thin film solar cells of 20.8% has been achieved with a potassium fluoride post-treatment. This treatment has a major impact on the way Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells behave. Now, high efficiencies can be obtained with higher band gaps as well.

  7. Rapid Research Letter

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    1. Kesterite solar cells

      Cu2ZnSn(S1–xSex)4 thin film solar cells prepared by water-based solution process (pages 223–227)

      Minlin Jiang, Fei Lan, Xingzhong Yan and Guangyong Li

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308215

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      A novel route to deposit a kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S1–xSex)4 (CZTSSe) absorber layer using water-based solution was developed. This method uses commercially available chemicals to prepare CZTSSe precursor solution. CZTSSe thin film is compact and consists of large crystals. A conversion efficiency of 6.2% under AM1.5G simulated sunlight has been demonstrated. An environmentally friendly technology to fabricate low-cost, high-performance, earth-abundant CZTSSe solar cells will be developed and will contribute to the future dominance of thin film PV technologies.

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    1. Crystalline silicon

      Radial distribution of iron in silicon crystals grown by Czochralski method from contaminated feedstock (pages 228–230)

      Teimuraz Mchedlidze and Jörg Weber

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308327

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      Strong suppression of iron precipitation is detected near to the rims of Cz-Si crystals grown from iron-contaminated feedstock. At the achieved accuracy level, iron shows a homogeneous radial distribution, however, it is mainly in the FeB state close to the crystal rims and in the form of silicide precipitates in the rest of the crystal.

    2. Silicon surface passivation

      Surface passivation of crystalline silicon by sputter deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (pages 231–234)

      Xinyu Zhang, Stuart Hargreaves, Yimao Wan and Andres Cuevas

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308253

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      Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films are playing essential roles in silicon heterojunction solar cells. This Letter presents that outstanding passivation of silicon has been achieved by RF sputtering deposition of a-Si:H, similar to that achieved by the state-of-art PECVD method. Adding hydrogen gas in the plasma source and using heated substrate are the key factors for effective passivation. As a result, sputtering is an attractive fabrication option.

  9. Rapid Research Letters

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    1. Light trapping in silicon

      Lambertian light trapping in thin crystalline macroporous Si layers (pages 235–238)

      Marco Ernst and Rolf Brendel

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308294

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      Lambertian light trapping is a benchmark for efficient light trapping. In this Letter the authors experimentally quantify the degree of Lambertian light trapping in a macroporous silicon layer. The macroporous Si layer shows an optical absorption that corresponds to a photogeneration current density that equals 98.5% of the ideal Lambertian value.

    2. Resistive switching memory

      Improved resistive switching phenomena observed in SiNx-based resistive switching memory through oxygen doping process (pages 239–242)

      Ju Hyun Park, Hee-Dong Kim, Seok Man Hong, Min Ju Yun, Dong Su Jeon and Tae Geun Kim

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308309

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      Oxygen-doped SiNx-based resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cells were fabricated by reactive sputtering method to improve the resistive switching (RS) phenomena. The oxygen doping effect suppresses the existence of traps such as silicon dangling bonds, which contributes to a reduction in the distribution of operating voltage and in the operating current level. These results imply that oxygen doping in the active layer is an effective and simple way to improve the RS properties in SiNx films.

    3. Phase change memory

      The effect of carbon-doped In3Sb1Te2 ternary alloys for multibit (MLC) phase-change memory (pages 243–247)

      Hyun Soo Kim, Yong Tae Kim, Ha Sub Hwang and Man Young Sung

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308211

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      Great demand for flash memory capacity is skyrocketing as multilevel cell (MLC) performance becomes a mainstream. Thus, a revolution is needed to advance phase-change memory technology. In this Letter, the authors develop carbon-doped In3Sb1Te2 materials showing multilevel cell characteristics that decreased volume change during set/reset operation. The carbon-doped In3Sb1Te2 materials reduce the voids drastically, while undoped In3Sb1Te2 has a lot of voids during set/reset operation.

    4. Thin film transistors

      Wavy channel thin film transistor architecture for area efficient, high performance and low power displays (pages 248–251)

      Amir N. Hanna, Galo A. Torres Sevilla, Mohamed T. Ghoneim, Aftab M. Hussain, Rabab R. Bahabry, Ahad Syed and Muhammad M. Hussain

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308282

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      An innovative wavy architecture is employed to demonstrate a thin film transistor fabricated with zinc oxide (ZnO) channel material which shows extra ordinary performance improvement and drive in voltage scaling without additional real estate consumption.

    5. OFETs

      Self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowire networks by a mixed-solvent approach for organic field-effect transistors (pages 252–255)

      Zongpeng Zhu, Bin Wei and Jun Wang

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308270

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      In this Letter, the authors successfully fabricated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on interconnected nanowire networks of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) by using a mixed-solvent method. The nanowire network density can be tuned by controlling the anisole/chlorobenzene ratio of the mixed solvents. Moreover, the formation processes of P3HT nanowire networks can be stepwise represented as: nanowire–branching–bundle–cluster.

    6. AlN thin films

      Effect of growth stoichiometry on the structural properties of AlN films on thermally nitrided sapphire equation image (pages 256–259)

      Kohei Ueno, Eiji Kishikawa, Shigeru Inoue, Jitsuo Ohta, Hiroshi Fujioka, Masaharu Oshima and Hiroyuki Fukuyama

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308275

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      The authors report on the epitaxial growth of AlN on thermally nitrided sapphire (11–20) via pulsed sputtering growth technique. The surfaces of AlN epilayers prepared by this technique were atomically flat stepped and terraced structures and their crystalline quality are comparable to that of AlN on sapphire grown by the state-of-the-art MOVPE technology. The present approach is quite promising for the low-cost fabrication of AlGaN-based UV optical devices.

    7. High-power LEDs

      Yield analysis of large-area high-power single-chip GaN-based light-emitting diodes with network design (pages 260–263)

      Wei Wang, Yong Cai, Yibin Zhang, Hongjuan Huang, Wei Huang, Haiou Li and Baoshun Zhang

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308308

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      The design of parallel and series network structure with multiple small LED cells is successfully introduced to make it possible to manufacture a large-area LED chip commercially with high production yield. Using such a design, the authors demonstrate a high-power single-chip LED device achieving a 9.7 W blue optical output power with a total yield of about 87%.

    8. Plasmonics

      Polarization dependent, surface plasmon induced photoconductance in gold nanorod arrays (pages 264–268)

      S. Diefenbach, N. Erhard, J. Schopka, A. Martin, C. Karnetzky, D. Iacopino and A. W. Holleitner

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308305

    9. Semiconductor nanowires

      Realization of single and double axial InSb–GaSb heterostructure nanowires (pages 269–273)

      Sepideh Gorji Ghalamestani, Martin Ek and Kimberly A. Dick

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308331

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      The heteroepitaxial growth of Au-seeded InSb and GaSb nanowires is investigated using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The authors demonstrate successful single and double axial InSb–GaSb heterostructures in both directions on InAs (a,b) and GaAs substrates. The formation properties of the grown nanowires such as interface sharpness (c), particle compositional change and decomposition of InSb and GaSb segments are further explained.

    10. Magnetic semiconductors

      Correlation-induced magnetic order and magnetic phenomena in transition-metal δ-doped cubic ZnO (pages 274–278)

      Iosif Galanakis

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308290

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      ZnO is a popular wide-band semiconductor with applications in a variety of nanotechnology fields. Magnetism in ZnO is a fascinating new area of research leading to potential spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices. In this Letter, employing the case of single transition-metal impurity layers in cubic ZnO structure as an example, the effect of electron correlations on the magnetic and electronic properties of the doped ZnO nanostructures is demonstrated.

    11. Piezoelectric materials

      Abnormal thermal conductivity of [720]-oriented BaTiO3 single crystal (pages 279–282)

      K. Y. Zhao, H. R. Zeng, X. W. Zhang, K. Q. Xu, H. Z. Yu, G. R. Li and H. S. Luo

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308255

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      The underlying mechanism for a reduction of the local thermal conductivity of [720]-oriented BaTiO3 compared to [001]-oriented BaTiO3 is investigated. The drastic reduction is ascribed to a stronger phonon-scattering effect due to the high strains appearing in [720]-oriented BaTiO3 single crystals.

    12. Nuclear materials

      The unoccupied electronic structure characterization of hydrothermally grown ThO2 single crystals (pages 283–286)

      T. D. Kelly, J. C. Petrosky, D. Turner, J. W. McClory, J. M. Mann, J. W. Kolis, Xin Zhang and P. A. Dowben

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308286

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      The electronic structure of hydrothermally grown ThO2 single crystals has been studied using a variety of photoemission techniques. Hybridization of the Th 5f/6d electrons is identified by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and compared to inverse and ultraviolet photoemission measurements. The fundamental band gap is extracted, and the crystal covalency is explored.

    13. Ion battery materials

      Temperature dependence of anisotropic displacement parameters in O3-type NaM O2 (M = Cr and Fe): Comparison with isostructural LiCoO2 (pages 287–290)

      D. Tanabe, T. Shimono, W. Kobayashi and Y. Moritomo

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308295

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      In this Letter, the temperature dependence of anisotropic displacement parameters, U33 and U11, in NaM O2 (M = Cr, Fe) is investigated by synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction analysis. In both compounds, U33 is smaller than U11 for Na reflecting the two-dimensional (2D) host structure. This study will provide basic crystallographic information for investigating active materials for sodium ion secondary batteries.

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    6. NEW IN pss
    7. rrl solar
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