Effect of Echinacea, Aconitum, Lachesis and Apis extracts, and their combinations on phagocytosis of human granulocytes

Authors

  • Michael Erhard,

    1. Institut für Physiologie, Physiologische Chemie und Ernährungsphysiologie, Tierärztliche Fakultät, Universtät München, Veterinärstraße 13, München, Germany
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  • Josefine Kellner,

    1. Institut für Physiologie, Physiologische Chemie und Ernährungsphysiologie, Tierärztliche Fakultät, Universtät München, Veterinärstraße 13, München, Germany
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  • Johanna Wild,

    1. Institut für Physiologie, Physiologische Chemie und Ernährungsphysiologie, Tierärztliche Fakultät, Universtät München, Veterinärstraße 13, München, Germany
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  • Uli Lösch,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institut für Physiologie, Physiologische Chemie und Ernährungsphysiologie, Tierärztliche Fakultät, Universtät München, Veterinärstraße 13, München, Germany
    • Institut für Physiologie, Physiologische Chemie und Ernährungsphysiologie, Tierärztliche Fakultät, Universtät München, Veterinärstraße 13, München, Germany
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  • Fatma Sefika Hatiboglu

    1. Institut für Physiologie, Veterinär Fakultät, Universität Ankara, Turkey
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Abstract

The influence of Echinacea angustifolia, Aconitum napellus, Lachesis muta, and Apis mellifica, the contents of the combination product Influex (Steigerwald, Germany), on the phagocytosis of human granulocytes was investigated. Incorporation of latex microspheres was measured with a flow cytometric method. With regard to the constituents of the prescription, only vitamin C, lipopolysaccharide, and Echinacea angustifolia were able to enhance the phagocytosis rate. Aconitum, Apis and Lachesis, alone were not able to stimulate phagocytosis but showed an enhancement effect when combined with one another or with Echinacea. For example, a combination of Aconitum (10−2) and Lachesis (10−2) was able to stimulate phagocytosis up to 390%.

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