This research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) on alleviation of learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats as a result of the observed antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of C3G. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, C3G-treated-control and -diabetic groups. The C3G was administered i.p. at a dose of 10 mg/kg on alternate days for eight weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL) and step-through latency (STL) were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, spatial recognition memory was assessed as alternation in the Y-maze task. Oxidative stress markers in brain tissue were also measured. It was found that the alternation score of the diabetic rats was lower than that of control (p < 0.01) and C3G-treated diabetic rats showed a higher alternation score as compared to diabetic group (p < 0.05). Diabetic rats also developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p < 0.01) and C3G treatment of diabetic rats did not produce any significant improvement. Meanwhile, increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in diabetic rats was significantly reduced following C3G treatment (p < 0.05). Taken together, chronic C3G could improve short-term spatial recognition memory disturbance in the Y-maze test but not retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.